History of the Town of Schaghticoke

the results of research about the history of the town of Schaghticoke

Tag Archives: Hoosic River

Schaghticoke in the Late 19th. Century

Up until now, I have been waiting to add content to my blog until it has already been published in my newspaper column in the Mechanicville “Express”. But this article is extremely long- I have been posting it in the newspaper 500 words at a time for months now, with lots more to go. So I am going to put in what I have published so far here.
I covered some of the time right after 1850 in writing about local veterans of the Civil War from 1861-1865. But I will pick up the story about the town about 1870. I have used the same sources of information as before: census, Sylvester’s “History of Rensselaer County”, newspaper articles found through use of http://www.fultonhistory.com; maps; church, town, cemetery, and surrogate records; and records available through http://www.ancestry.com. Since Sylvester’s book was written in 1880, it has particular relevance to this period. And Beer’s “Atlas of Rensselaer County” was published in 1876, so is very timely, as is the “Rensselaer County Directory” of 1870. The censuses for 1855, 1860, 1865, and 1870 provide more and different kinds of information than that of 1850, including how long people have been living in town, and how many children women have had. The occupation of women is also included, as it was not in 1850. Newspaper articles become more and more detailed about people and events. On the one hand I am able to write a lot more about a lot more folks, but on the other hand, the task of writing becomes more daunting. I have had a hard time knowing when to stop, frankly. And I keep finding more interesting people to research and write about.

troy and boston depot beers atlas map

Rail depot across the river from the village of Schaghticoke- Hart’s Falls 1876

Of course, right after 1850, there was a major improvement in transportation for Schaghticoke- the Troy and Boston Railroad came through town. As I have written before, I haven’t been able to discover why the railroad station ended up on the other side of the Hoosic River from the village of Schaghticoke, but it did- it was at the junction of today’s Meadowview Drive and East Schaghticoke Road. I think it was a matter of cost- another bridge across the river was expensive. It was still handy to the Schaghticoke Powder Mill, which was relocating from the north side of the Tomhannock Creek at Schaghticoke Hill to the south side of the Hoosic River, more easily accessible from Valley Falls. The location was certainly awkward for the mills in the gorge of the Hoosic River. I do know that when the Troy and Boston Railroad was planned, the station was to be on the village side of the river. An article in the Troy “Times” in September 1859 about supporting the Albany and Northern Railroad after a horrible accident records that the citizens of the village were duped by the Troy and Boston. “A most shameful piece of deception was practiced on us by the Directors of the Troy and Boston Railroad in changing the site of the road after it was located, after the stock was taken, and the first ten per cent installment paid in.” This must have been particularly galling to local entrepreneur Amos Briggs, co-owner of most of the mills, heavy investor in the railroad, and its first President.

As it ended up, the railroad ran directly north from Troy, roughly paralleling Route 40, running on the west side of that road until just north of the little hamlet of Melrose, then crossing over the road- you see the abutments just south of where Pinewoods Road goes to the west of Route 40- then running east of route 40, heading to the station at East Schaghticoke and on to Valley Falls. The tracks south of Valley Falls were taken up in 1973. I don’t know why, but the 1856 wall map of the town of Schaghticoke shows the Albany Northern Railroad (see below) but not the Troy and Boston, and the 1876 Beers Atlas shows the Troy and Boston, but not the Albany Northern.

1856 map shows the Albany Northern RR curving through town

A second railroad, the Albany Northern, organized in 1851, also ran through the town of Schaghticoke. Its first train ran from Eagle Bridge to Albany in July 1853. Its station was actually in the village of Schaghticoke, near the current Agway. This railroad always suffered financially, and was reorganized as the Albany, Vermont, and Canada Railroad in 1856. This was the era of explosive railroad construction, with many of the roads either failing or consolidating with other companies. According to an article in “The History of Railroads” by Henry Varnum Poor, p. 234, the Albany Northern directors were all men from Albany. The railroad went from Albany to Cohoes and crossed the Hudson River just north of where the Deepkill empties into the Hudson River. This is just south of the junction of Calhoun Drive and River Road- where River Road now comes to a dead end. It curved north through town, crossing the Tomhannock Creek just west of Route 40, then crossing the little peninsula where Agway is, then crossing the Hoosic River just south of Valley Falls and heading to Eagle Bridge. The Troy and Boston and the Albany Northern rails were just feet apart from Valley Falls to Eagle Bridge, and of course in direct competition. In Eagle Bridge, passengers could connect to trains to Vermont and Massachusetts.

the Albany Northern crossed the Hudson River near the junction of River Road and Calhoun Drive

According to Sylvester’s “History of Rensselaer County”, published in 1880, William Pitt Button and Abram Myers of Schaghticoke, “compelled” the railroad to build three bridges over their tracks in the town. William lived on what is now the Denison Farm on Buttermilk Falls Road. Abram lived on what is now the Brock Farm. At the time, the railroad crossed Pinewoods Road as it goes down the hill to River Road, Hansen Road, Buttermilk Falls Road where the railroad crosses now, Farm to Market Road on a section which no longer exists, and Route 40 where the railroad crosses now. There is a bridge at the latter crossing today, of course. I am not sure where the other two bridges were.

the Albany Northern crossing today’s Buttermilk Falls Road, and the Tomhannock Creek, where the accident occurred

The railroad worked to make itself attractive- for example, the Troy “Daily Times” of September 26, 1856 reported that passengers of the Albany Northern would receive free transport on an “omnibus” from the Troy House and the Mansion House in Troy to the Watervliet landing for the day boat to New York City, and all points in between on the Hudson. The boat, the fast steamer “Alida”, departed every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday at 7 a.m. In 1853, a branch of the railroad connected with the Rensselaer and Saratoga, enabling passengers to go to Saratoga, and on to Lake Champlain and Montreal. An ad in the Troy “Times” in 1858 listed 5 departures a day from Albany for the north- from 7 in the a.m. until 5:30 in the evening. On the other hand, a letter to the editor of the Troy “Times” June 1, 1858 stated “the cars on the ABVC Railroad are the meanest we ever rode in. The one in which we were put (and it was the only one of the train) was so leaky in the roof and on both sides, that it was like being caught out in a shower of rain without an umbrella. Such rickety cars are worse than a rotten bridge, and the directors ought to be censured for having them on the Road.” Well, as we shall see, a rotten bridge is worse.

newspaper ad for the Albany Northern

So for about 30 years, the village of Schaghticoke was served by two railroads. The Albany Northern had a couple of accidents previously, one resulting in a fatality, but on August 2, 1859, there was what is still the county’s worst train disaster. It was widely reported in the newspapers of the time all over the country. The mail train, headed south around 7 p.m., was passing over the Tomhannock Creek when the trestle collapsed. (“Centinel of Freedom”, Kingston Aug 9, 1859)“The accident took place about one mile this side (south) of Schaghticoke. The moment the train, which was running very rapid, struck the bridge, the structure gave way. The locomotive, however, got across, and became uncoupled from the tender. The latter went down, and the baggage car and two passenger cars followed. The first passenger car went down endwise on the top of the tender, while the second passenger car ran into it, and keeled it over.” The article reports that the cars fell almost 40 feet, landing in eight feet of water- I am surprised at the report of the depth of the creek, though one of the passengers testified that the cars fell 25 or 30 feet into 3 feet of water, which seems more likely.
At the Coroner’s Inquest in Albany, the engineer, Charles Jones, reported that the train had been going 10 miles per hour- “running very rapid”?? –but that the brakeman had failed to slow the train to cross the bridge. He also said that the bridge had been reported unsafe about a year ago, but that it had been repaired. As the bridge was only eight years old, it must not have been much of a bridge to begin with! The President of the Railroad, William White, testified to the Coroner that maybe the bridge was unsafe, but that the engineer was known for going too fast- that 10 miles per hour was considered too fast. The Coroner held the owners of the railroad responsible for the deaths in the accident. In fact, there was an attempt to indict Mr White for manslaughter in an appellate court, which failed by two votes. The indictment charged that he knew very well that the bridge was unsafe.(Kingston Daily Chronicle, Sept 3, 1859)
The first report was that eight people had been killed in the wreck, including all but one of those in the baggage car, which was reduced to splinters. There were 45-50 passengers in the first car, including the wife of the Cashier of the railroad, Mrs. John Cuyler, who was killed, along with her daughter, Lucinda Cooley, wife of the conductor. Other dead included Charles Plimpton, the mail agent; Charles Bethelon, the brakeman; Patrick Connolly and Dennis Cahill, machinists who worked for the railroad; David Russell, the express messenger, a baggage man, and Howard Wright, a merchant who lived on Hudson Street in Albany. A number of others were badly injured, including the conductor, Mr Cooley, and passengers from Quebec, New Hampshire, New York City, Dayton, Ohio, and Whitewater, Wisconsin. Just one resident of Schaghticoke, Hiram Buel, was injured. The inhabitants of Schaghticoke turned out to help the wounded. It was the practice of the railroad to send another engine down the line after the final train of the day, and according to an article by Joseph Smith in the Troy Record (Aug 3, 1968), the engineer and fireman of the wrecked train ran up the track and stopped that engine just before it came around the curve and went off the collapsed trestle itself.
The Albany, Vermont, and Canada, already in financial trouble, was forced into foreclosure almost immediately after the accident. On October 20, its stock was sold to the Rensselaer and Saratoga and Troy and Boston Railroads. The Rensselaer and Saratoga Railroad leased the rails from Albany to Waterford, but the Troy and Boston clearly had no use for most of the tracks it had leased in the town of Schaghticoke. It took up at least some rails and ties and sold or used them elsewhere. It is unclear how long the bridge across the Hudson River survived, unused. The roadbed remained ready for reuse. A long and litigious battle ensued between the Troy and Boston and its rival, the Boston, Hoosac Tunnel and Western Railroad over the roadbed from Valley Falls to Eagle Bridge, with suits and countersuits working through the courts and the New York State Legislature from 1860 through the 1880’s. The Hoosac Tunnel had finally opened in 1875, giving direct access to Boston. One of the conditions of the lease of the roadbed was that the Troy and Boston would maintain several bridges in the town of Schaghticoke. This was not done at first, and the town of Schaghticoke sued the railroad. It then complied and fixed and/or built bridges. So did the Boston, Hoosac Tunnel and Western Railway, which in 1879 erected a stone and iron bridge at the site of the fatal accident. Its rails went west, then north, to cross the Hudson River at Stillwater in 1879 (“Saratoga County Heritage, p. 532) and connect with existing rails north and south. Though that company went bankrupt in 1882, the rails continued in use. Arthur Weise’s “History of Troy and Vicinity” in 1886 reported that the village of Schaghticoke was a station on the Boston, Hoosac Tunnel and Western Railway, with a station on the Troy and Boston Railroad across the river in East Schaghticoke. The Bird’s Eye View map of the village made in 1889 shows a train on a track right on the edge of the village, puffing into a station on the village side of the river, then headed for the trestle across Electric Lake.

albany northern from birds eye view

train about to reach the depot at Schaghticoke from 1889 bird’s eye view

The Troy and Boston Railroad was not immune from fatal accidents. An article in the Troy “Daily Times” on October 5, 1869 reported that the 5 o’clock passenger train going north ran into a freight train between Lansingburgh and Speigletown. Cars were derailed and three people were injured. Fortunately the trains were going slowly. The freight train should have stopped in Schaghticoke to let the passenger train pass. The track was quickly cleared and the passenger train went on. At 10 o’clock the same day the rails gave way between Hoosick Junction and Hoosick Falls and the same engine, tender, and one car went down an embankment in the Hoosick River. Three people were killed. Talk about a cursed train!
The Troy “Daily Times” of May 2, 1887 reported the consolidation of the Troy and Boston Railroad with the Fitchburgh and Boston, Hoosac Tunnel and Western Railroads. I think that this move would have finally resulted in the track conformation that we became used to- with the station at Melrose, the railroad crossing route 40 just north of that, then crossing the town to a small bridge over the Tomhannock on Madigan Road. And the rails went west, with a stop at Reynolds, near the junction of Howland Avenue and Route 67, then on over the Hudson to Mechanicville.

Boston and Maine (former Troy and Boston) RR Station at East Schaghticoke

So by 1870, people in Schaghticoke could travel easily to Troy or Hoosick Falls, or indeed to many other places by train. There was a daily stage connection from the express train at 1:30 from Troy at Schaghticoke to Easton, and north (Troy Daily Times April 10, 1867). I have found a few mill operators, for example Edwin Hartshorn, G.P. Mealey, and Sydney Spicer, who commuted to town, but most people still worked near where they lived. The town, which had the same northern, western, and eastern boundaries as today, ended at the DeepKill in Grant Hollow, as it had since 1819. So Speigletown and Pleasantdale- which were not really built up- were part of Lansingburgh politically. The centers of population in the town were almost as they had been for many years: Grant Hollow, Schaghticoke Hill, the portion of Valley Falls in Schaghticoke, and the village of Schaghticoke. Grant Hollow, also called Junction, was the site of the agricultural machinery factory, begun about 1830, and its associated store. There was also the Methodist Church, and a school, up Mineral Springs Road, and a post office. The Methodist minister served this church and the one at Schaghticoke Hill.

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Melrose from Beers Atlas 1876 (Baucus is misspelled)

The new competition for Grant Hollow was Melrose, where by 1877 there were a new railroad depot, a post office, a hotel, and a store. This was where the Troy and Boston Railroad crossed the main road, a better place for a train depot than Grant Hollow. An article in the Troy “Times on March 31, 1874 reported “The Troy and Boston Railroad Company will build a new station here. GW Sinsabaugh of Troy is putting up an elegant summer dwelling. Melrose is growing rapidly and eligible villa sites are much sought after.” Mr Sinsabaugh was a very successful confectioner in Troy. The Sinsabaugh home is now the home of Denise Hegarty, at the base of Church Street. And Avenue A was the street of “villas”, built after his. The convenient railroad depot made it easy for wealthy Trojans to travel to the “country”.
Looking at the map in Beers Atlas of 1876, there were high hopes for Melrose. 61 building plots were laid out on both sides of Avenue A, plus a parallel Avenue B. There was just one home built on Avenue A, about midway along the west side. Of course, most of these plots were never developed. The map shows a wagon shop on the east side of the main road, just south of where Valley Falls road veers north, a store and post office next to that, and the Park Hotel in the vee of Route 40 and Valley Falls Road.
The historical pamphlet written about Melrose by Patricia Crandall for the U.S. Bicentennial in 1976 reports that Mr Schoonmaker, a resident, decided that Melrose, which had been called “Checkered Shed”, should have a nicer name and called it Melrose after Melrose Abbey in Scotland about 1870. I can find no mention of Melrose before 1874 in the newspaper, but it is definitely called that in Beers 1876 atlas.
C.C. Schoonmaker owned the land at the corner of Church Street and Route 40, where the Esquire Pharmacy, now the Ercswma warehouse, is. Christopher C. Schoonmaker appears in the 1875 NY census for town, age 43. He was a photographer, born in Albany, and lived with his wife Eleanor, 44, plus a farm laborer named Daniel Gardener, age 21 and a servant named Mary Piper, 18, born in Germany. Christopher may have only lived in town a short time. He appeared in city directories in Troy as a photographer almost until his death in 1906. Of course, he could have maintained a summer home in Melrose. This short-term or part-time resident had a long-term effect on our town, for sure, if the name Melrose did come from him.
Schaghticoke Hill, where the Tomhannock Creek crosses Route 40, continued to be the site of the keg mill, associated with the Powder Mill, plus the Evans Grist Mill, several other mills, a Methodist Church, school, and Hurley’s blacksmith shop. The Powder Mill was now on the Hoosic River across from the village of Schaghticoke. The “Rensselaer County Directory” for 1870 notes it had “a Methodist Church, two stores, a saw mill, a grist mill, and twine and cordage mill, a scutching mill, the Schaghticoke Powder Keg Mill and about 150 inhabitants.” Scutching is part of processing flax.

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Bryan district 1876 Note the school and the Lutheran Church

There was another small concentration of population along the Hudson River south of Hemstreet Park, at the junction with Allen Road, called Bryan’s Corners. At this spot there were the WW Bryan Grain Cradle Factory, a Lutheran Church established in 1852, and a school. Hiram C. Bryan originally had a farm in the area. His father Elijah, born in Connecticut, had come to town after the Revolution. He died in 1842. Around 1850 Hiram and his sons William Ward and Amos began to dabble in making agricultural machinery. Hiram helped to found a Lutheran Church there, and there were enough children for a school, which stood at the junction of River and Allen Roads.

While I think that Amos returned to farming, William W. continued as a manufacturer- and an inventor. William had at least two patents. One in 1856 was for an “improved mode of securing braces in the snath of a grain cradle.” Another in 1870 was for grain fork improvements. In 1876 he exhibited a “fanning mill of his own manufacture” at the NYS Fair in Albany (Troy “Times” September 14, 1876). He also displayed barley forks and “one of his patent self-oiling axles, which can be used one month with one oiling.” He had introduced the axle the year before.
Through examination of the census over the years, it seems that Bryan always had a “mechanic” or two living with his family, or a blacksmith or a “cradle maker” (referring to grain cradles.) In the 1880 US Census, William, 53, and wife Maria, 54, had their sons N. Visher, 23, and Eugene, 18, at home, working in the agricultural shop, plus two blacksmiths, George Brodt, 26, and John Buckley, 19. When William W. Bryan died in 1898, the Mechanicville “Mercury” (September 10) reported he was “one of the best known residents of the town” He was the “manufacturer of the Bryan grain harvester machinery and of late employed by Westinghouse as an attorney, his territory covering the western states.” This last phrase is a great surprise to me. I can’t find how Bryan became a lawyer!
Around 1880, the focus of population and activity shifted from Bryan’s Corners to the junction of the Boston, Hoosac Tunnel and Western Railroad and Allen Road, near Howland. This was named “Reynolds “. Newspaper articles of the era mentioning the Bryans were datelined “Reynolds.” It first was a train stop, but there was briefly a post office there. It also became a milk stop, where dairy farmers could bring their milk to be shipped.
I previously explained the source of the name “Reynolds” when I wrote about Schaghticoke in 1850. William VanVechten, a farmer in the area of “Reynolds”, was town supervisor in 1850. His daughter Deriah married a man named Noyes Reynolds, a merchant from Troy. VanVeghtens were among the first settlers of the town, and always lived in what became known as Reynolds. Noyes died in 1874 and Deriah in 1888. Their son William VanVechten Reynolds, a graduate of Columbia Law School, inherited his grandfather’s property. Though William was a member of the bar, he never practiced law. He was aide to General Burt when he laid out the track of the Boston, Hoosac Tunnel Railroad, then managed the railroad for a number of years. He also was the Postmaster at what was named Reynolds for him, a milk stop on the railroad. He was prominent in Democratic politics, and, according to his obituary in the Schaghticoke Sun on January 15, 1897, a “Gold man”, who attended the National Sound Money Convention in 1896. William was a prominent local club man, in a couple of Masonic Lodges and the Clover Club in Mechanicville. He was also a director of the First National Bank in Mechanicville.

tombstone of William VV Reynolds in the little cemetery on Route 67

William VV Reynolds died of a heart attack while visiting New York City in 1897. His funeral at the Dutch Reformed Church near his home was attended by many fellow Masons, over 100 of whom came by special train from Troy, along with Doring’s Band, which played at the funeral. William died without a will, leaving debts which were greater than his estate. He had worthless stock in the Hamilton Iron and Steel Company of Canada and the Troy “Press”. He was survived only by his young widow, Estella Knight, whom he had married in Manhattan in 1895. She was not mentioned in his extensive obituary in the “Sun.” She and a physician named Sabbati Ullman named as the executors of William’s estate. William was buried next to his father in the little cemetery on route 67 near the private airport, called the Reynolds Cemetery.

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bridge across the Hudson at Hemstreet Park

There had been a bridge across the Hudson at Stillwater since at least 1840, and as Mechanicville grew, I’m sure there was pressure for a bridge there. The Mechanicville Bridge Company was incorporated by the NYS Legislature in 1872 (Saratogian May 2, 1872), but the law authorizing the construction of the bridge wasn’t enacted until 1883, first by the Saratoga County Board of Supervisors. It mandated an iron truss bridge about 1,000 feet long and 24 feet wide, with a railing at least 4 ½ feet high and stone piers. This was to be a toll bridge, and the law established a detailed schedule of tolls, from 13 cents for a two-horse wagon to 3 cents for a pedestrian. The directors of the company were Thomas P. Wilkinson, Charles A. Whedan, Horace J. Medbery, William VV Reynolds, and William H. Leach. (Saratogian, November 16, 1883) Only William VV Reynolds, mentioned in the previous paragraph, was from Schaghticoke. The Rensselaer County Board of Supervisors adopted the same resolution at the same time (Journal of the Board of Supervisors, 1883). The new bridge company issued $20,000 in stock, which was all purchased by November 1887. (Troy “Daily Times” November 9, 1887) The bridge was finally constructed the next year, for just over $21,000 (Dedication Pamphlet, new bridge, 1950). The current hamlet of Hemstreet Park developed after the bridge, and I will discuss it in a future article.

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The Schaghticoke portion of Valley Falls, 1876

Another center of population, the village of Valley Falls was and is still divided by the Hoosic River. In 1867, the toll bridge became a free public bridge, to be jointly maintained by the towns of Pittstown and Schaghticoke (Troy Daily Times April 10, 1867). By the Beers Atlas of 1876, the Schaghticoke portion was dominated by the Valley Falls Paper Manufacturing Company. Its mill was located to the north of the bridge across the Hoosic River, with buildings labeled “Mill,” “store house”, and “straw shed.” There was a black smith shop on the south side of the bridge, plus a number of residences. Though the owner of the mill in the 1870 US Census was Thomas Lape, the operators of the mill by 1880 were Charles J. Stark and John Kenyon, who lived just up Bunker Hill Road from the mill. I will discuss these men later in this article.
Of course the major center of population was still the village of Schaghticoke. The village was finally incorporated in 1867 by a joint NYS Legislative resolution that April. It was named “Hart’s Falls.” The Troy “Daily Times” of April 18, 1867 said it was named for Richard P. Hart. In the 1820’s Hart, “early saw the advantage to be derived from the excellent water privileges of that place, and was the first to avail himself of them.” The first half of that sentence is correct, but there had been mills at Schaghticoke for about thirty years when Hart and his local partner Amos Briggs bought up all of the mills in the gorge of the Hoosic. Richard died in 1844, but his widow Betsey continued as Amos’ partner. Actually, as of 1867, Betsey was working hard to extricate herself from partnership with Briggs, who was hopelessly in debt to the company. She actually accomplished this about the time the village was named. And Briggs, as I will explain, was not in favor of the incorporation of the village.
In May 1867 the first election under the new charter occurred (Troy Times May 8, 1867), “the most exciting affair that has happened ..in many months. The two tickets represented charter and anti-charter.” I don’t know what would have occurred if the anti-charter ticket won, as the Legislature had just incorporated the village, but in the event, the “pro-charter” ticket triumphed. O.A. Arnold, who lived in the first house on the southeast side of the current Hoosic River bridge, got 182 votes and was elected President of the village over Amos Briggs, who received only 60. It is so interesting that Briggs, such a long-time prominent citizen was so decisively defeated and that he was an “anti”. The trustees of the village were J.A. Baucus, C.B. Slocum, and S.S. Congdon, with Elihu Butts elected justice. Butts had been a town justice of the peace for many years. Interestingly, one of the anti-charter trustee candidates was Michael McGrath, who ran the saloon across the street from O.A. Arnold’s house.
An article in the Troy “Times” on August 13, 1880 implied that the village was named for one Edward Hart, who had the first fulling mill in the village in 1798. I have done lots of research on early mills in the town and have NEVER heard of Edward Hart before. In any event, the name Hart’s Falls only lasted until about 1880, when the village was appropriately renamed “Schaghticoke”. The Troy “Times” reported on April 19, 1880 that a bill doing that was working its way through the NYS Legislature. An article in the Troy “Times” on August 13, 1880 said the village had 1525 residents. The biggest employers were a paper mill, the new cable flax mill, which it said had 900 employees by 1880, and the woolen mill, with 200 employees. I think in fact the flax mill had 200-250 employees.
The “Rensselaer County Directory of 1870” stated “at this place is one of the finest water-powers on the Hoosick River. The whole fall is about 96 feet, including a perpendicular fall of 32 feet.”
Let’s imagine we lived in the village of Schaghticoke in 1870. What would that be like? First of all, we would probably work close to home, very possible due to the mills and stores. The mills even had some dedicated housing to rent to workers. We could travel easily by train to Troy, but the village really offered all that we would need in the way of shops and services. George and James Beecroft, E. M. Congdon, and Charles Herrick sold meat; Job Viall sold hardware and groceries; Garrett Groesbeck sold groceries; Andrew Sipperly sold groceries and general merchandise; Richard Gunner had a bakery. Miss Mary Penman made dresses; there was a hat shop above the Opera House; Lorenzo and Charles Baker had a clothing store; Moses Wells sold shoes; Thomas Jackson made shoes and boots; Alonzo Doty sold groceries and shoes. Andrew Rexford had a jewelry store. Charles Albro had a hardware store. Where we might have a department store, Woolworth’s or a dollar store, Mary Barker had a variety store and William Bryant and Julius Butts were called “general merchants.”
Where we would have businesses connected with cars, the village of Schaghticoke had James Camfield’s and Jacob Cookingham’s carriage shops, Albert Hurley’s blacksmith shop (Hurley was an ancestor of our current Hurley’s Garage in Melrose), and Peter Denegar’s harness shop. James Nutt had a furniture store. Mrs Mary Richards and T.A. Hayden had drug stores. Hayden also dealt in paint, oils, glass, dye stuffs, perfumery, and fancy articles. There were also the marble shop of Patrick Prendergast, who made tombstones and provided stone for construction; the paint shop of William W. VanSchaick, who painted signs and decorated carriages as well as houses; and the carpenter shop of William Smith. Julius Habersack made cigars in the basement of Searle’s store.
The village also offered a number of services. Alphonzo Merrill (Merrell), Elihu Butts, and E.E. Frost had law offices; Charles Gerhausser a barber shop; S.S. Congdon an insurance agency and telegraph office; Dr. James Hornbrook was a dentist, Hiram Button a dentist and deputy sheriff; P.H. Ragan the undertaker, Drs. E. N. Beale and Tarbell the doctors. Randolph (John Robert) Hinds was listed as physician and surgeon. There was a post office, in Congdon’s insurance agency, and a train station. The 1870 Rensselaer County Directory also included J.D. Comstock a “photographic artist.” His office was over Hayden’s drug store. And there were several “saloons”, upstairs “halls” for meetings, and the opera house for theatrical performances.
Residents could choose among the Presbyterian, Methodist, Episcopalian, and Catholic Churches in the village, and the Lutheran and Dutch Reformed elsewhere in town. The churches were major social centers in town, sponsoring all kinds of events, from theatrical performances to lecture series, to fairs, to offering Bible study and the chance to sing in the choir. The village had three one-room school houses, but if students wanted to go to high school, they would have to travel elsewhere.
Let me tell a bit more about some of the more prominent community members of 1870, first the attorneys. The life of one, Dr. Elihu Butts, is easy to report, as he paid for a full page biography in Sylvester’s “History of Rensselaer County”, published in 1880 (p. 442-443). Elihu was born in Rome, Oneida County in 1813. He married Mary Ann Minerva Hartwell, daughter of a doctor in Rome, in 1833. They had two sons, Julius and Charles. He moved to Albany about 1835, and while running a drug store studied medicine at Albany Medical College, graduating in 1848. He moved to Schaghticoke in 1850 and set up his medical practice. The family lived just south of the bridge over the Hoosic River, across the street from the Catholic Church.

Elihu Butts from Sylvester’s “History of Rensselaer County”

Elihu was elected a Justice of the Peace for the first time in 1858 and became interested in the law. He studied law and was admitted to the New York State bar in 1861. Though he continued to be a member of the Rensselaer County Medical Society, he became a lawyer. His ad in the Troy “Times” for March 31, 1863 read “Attorney and Counsellor at law in Schaghticoke: Being furnished with blanks of the most approved form for securing pensions, bounties, etc. also deeds, bonds, mortgages, contracts, etc. with the requisite revenue stamps…is prepared to dispatch business…upon short notice and to the satisfaction of those who may entrust business in his hands.”
Elihu’s bio in Sylvester states “his health became somewhat impaired” and the physical demands of being a physician on-call were too much for him. Over the rest of his life, he served off and on as a Justice of the Peace in Schaghticoke and had a vigorous law practice. He was also health officer and justice of the peace for the village of Hart’s Falls, and elected “justice of sessions” in 1878. I believe this latter would be the highest criminal court in the county. As of 1870, Elihu’s law office was in the Geddis Building, which was on the east side of Main Street, just north of 2nd Street. Elihu seems to have become very interested in criminal law. The Troy newspaper included quite a few articles about his cases both as lawyer and judge.
One of Elihu’s sons, Charles Edward, was a music teacher in the village, and usually lived with his parents. The other son, Julius, married Carrie, the daughter of a local merchant, Charles Stratton. As of the 1870 directory, Stratton was a dealer in dry goods and general merchandise in the “Brick Block”. Sadly, I do not know which building this was, but I am sure it was located on lower Main Street. Julius and his family moved with his –in-laws to Brooklyn in 1874. At that point the Methodist Church minutes record his departure and state he had been organist and choir director at the church for twenty years, and that he would be missed.
Father Elihu and his wife were always active in the Schaghticoke Presbyterian Church. Elihu was director of the choir in his old age. The Butts were certainly a musical family. The newspaper record Elihu’s activity as a lawyer through 1884. 1885 was a very bad year for the family. Elihu died January 3. His cause of death is listed as diphtheria. Wife Mary Butts died January 13. And unmarried son Charles died December 23. All are buried in Elmwood Cemetery.
Alphonzo Merrell was another lawyer in town. He was born in 1827 in Easton to parents Frederick and Loenza Merrell. His father was a tailor. As of the 1850 US Census, the family lived in the village of Schaghticoke: parents Frederick, 47, and Louisa, 39, plus children Jane, 19; Harriet, 11; and Frederick, 4. Where was Alphonzo? Perhaps this is when he was studying to be a lawyer. As of the 1855 NY Census, he was living back at home, at age 28, listed with no occupation. His sisters had married, so the family included his parents and brother Frederick, just 9. By the 1860 US Census, Alphonzo remained in the village as a lawyer, living with Ann Perry and her son Charles, but his parents and brother had moved back to Easton. On June 3, 1868, he married Phebe L. Sherman in the Methodist Church. The 1865 NY Census listed three Sherman sisters in the village of Schaghticoke: Margaret, 32, Louise, 30, and Phoebe, 28. Margaret and Phoebe were milliners. Alphonzo and Phoebe lived in the first house on the west side of Main Street, just north of where the American House hotel stood- now a fenced in yard just beyond the World War I statue. As of 1880, Alphonzo’s law office was upstairs in the Congdon Block, which was on the east side of Main Street between First and Second Street.
Alphonzo served as clerk and treasurer for the new village of Hart’s Falls after 1867, as well as Justice of the Peace for the town, and as U.S. Postmaster in the village. He was involved in the Republican Party, listed as a local representative to the County Convention in 1871. He was also an informant for Nathan Sylvester when he wrote his “History of Rensselaer County” in 1880. He was a prominent member of the Methodist Church, where he was married.

josiah masters patent

patent by local resident, witnessed by Alphonzo Merrell

Unlike Elihu Butts, accounts of Alphonzo Merrell’s cases do not appear in the Troy newspaper. I feel he did the kind of legal work that many people need- wills, deeds, and other civil matters. He also witnessed at least two patents by local people: an improved potato sorter by D.A. and A.B. Banker in 1878, and a new bed spring by Josiah Rising Masters in 1882. He was a pillar of our community until his death of stomach cancer in 1884. His will left his house in Easton to his mother, and provided for the care of the family lot in Elmwood Cemetery, where his dad was already buried. His brother Fred, who lived nearby in Easton, received his wearing apparel right away. Widow Phoebe received the rest of the estate. She died in 1897.
One more man, Chauncey B. Slocum, apparently was also an attorney in 1870. I say apparently as the only place I found him listed as one is in the 1870 County Directory. Every census gave him a different occupation: in 1850 he was a “mechanic” in Pittstown, with $6000 in real estate; in 1855, he was a surveyor in Schaghticoke; in 1860 he was a “gentleman” in Schaghticoke with real estate of $2000 and a personal estate of $500; in 1865, he was a manufacturer, in 1870 a “general agent,” with real estate of $9,500. I know he was also the Rensselaer County Deputy Clerk in 1859, a U.S. Postmaster in the 1850’s, village trustee in the new village of Hart’s Falls after 1867, and Justice of the Peace in the town. He was one of the first trustees of the new Elmwood Cemetery in 1863, and secretary of the new Victor Masonic Lodge, founded in 1867. Chauncey was also a busy father. He and his wife Charlotte Crapo had eleven children.
I’d like to mention one man who had a rather new occupation in 1870. Joseph D. Comstock was listed in the 1870 County Directory as a photographer, with a studio above Hayden’s drug store on Main Street. I found that Joseph lived in Lansingburgh with his wife and children, so he was a commuter. I thought he may have had a studio in Lansingburgh as well, but he is just listed as living there. Photography was a new and short-lived occupation for Joseph. As of the 1865 NY Census, he was listed as a printer. He was the editor of the “Lansingburgh Chronicle.” By the 1875 NY Census, he had moved with his family and parents to Broome County, where he was listed as a farmer. In 1886 he was elected Justice of the Court of Sessions in Broome County (Troy Daily Times Oct. 19, 1886). This may have led to still another career. Beginning in 1900, when he was 69, the census listed him as a lawyer. He died in Nineveh, Broome County in 1915, at the advanced age of 84. His obituary in the “Binghamton Press” on October 12, 1915 said he was the oldest lawyer in the county and “well-known and highly respected” by all. What an interesting man!

Daniel H. Tarbell

Turning to doctors in town, I have written about one of the men before. Daniel H. Tarbell was a Civil War veteran. He was born in Brandon, in Franklin County, near Malone, in 1842, where his parents were farmers originally from Vermont. He enlisted in the 98th NYS Infantry in 1861 as age 19. Unusually, he moved on to the 14th U.S. Infantry Regiment, in the regular U.S. Army, soon after. I believe he was a hospital steward. He must have gone to medical school directly from the Army, as he graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1866, according to the pension file of fellow veteran and Schaghticoke resident Henry Simmons. He married Katherine Child, whom he knew from home, in 1868, and moved to Schaghticoke about 1874. His office was on the east side of Main Street, somewhere in the vicinity of current Diver Library. Presumably his war experience made him wwant to become a doctor.
Daniel and Kate were prominent citizens of the village of Schaghticoke. According to the “Journal of the American Medical Association”, he served as President of the village, coroner of the Northern District of Rensselaer County, and health officer of the village for 28 years. Daniel was one of the founders of the local post of the G.A.R., the Civil War veterans’ group in 1884. Kate was a member of the Methodist Church, while Daniel was an elder in the Presbyterian Church. He was also “Past Grand” of the local Odd Fellows, a member of the Troy Lodge of Elks, and the Rensselaer County Medical Association.
Sadly though the Tarbells had three children, they all died young: Florence died of cholera infantum aged one month, Earnest Arthur drowned at age 13, and a third child was not even named. An article in the August 5, 1882 Troy “Times” reported that Arthur and two friends were “bathing” (swimming)- about 200 feet downstream from the powder mill dam in the shallow water near the shore of the Hoosic River. Arthur went a little too far out and slipped into the much deeper water of the river. His friends tried to reach him but couldn’t. His body was recovered in twelve feet of water. Of course his parents were reported to be “much afflicted” by this event.
Daniel died in 1905 of a stroke. His obituary in the Troy “Daily Times” (November 11, 1905) stated he was “one of the best known residents of the northern section of Rensselaer County.” He was “a physician of the old school that is rapidly disappearing. He entered into the families of his clients as a friend and counselor. Their sufferings were his sorrow and their joys were also his.” “Genial and kindly”, his worked for the betterment of his community. In addition to being a doctor and coroner, he was also the Schaghticoke correspondent for the newspaper for many years. Wife Katherine survived until 1931. They are buried in Elmwood Cemetery.

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E. Newton Beale, from an album in the Masonic Hall

Edward Newton Beal(e) was the other major doctor in town. According to the catalog of Williams College of 1902, he was born in Spencertown, NY in 1834. His obituary of March 17, 1902 recorded that he graduated from Williston Seminary in Easthampton Massachusetts, then Williams College in 1857. He attended medical school at Michigan University, then graduated from Berkshire Medical School in Pittsfield in 1864. He married Maggie Blinn there in 1862 and moved to Schaghticoke in 1865. I think she and Newton, as he was known, had two children, Fanny, who died very young, and Alma, born in 1867. Maggie died in 1869 and Newton married Elizabeth Munger in 1874. Elizabeth was a school teacher and the daughter of Morgan and Amanda Munger. Morgan was a market gardener in the village of Schaghticoke.
Newton served as Master of the Victor Masonic Lodge and an Elder in the Presbyterian Church. He influenced several local young men to attend medical school. He retained a large farm in Spencertown, probably where he had grown up. The September 27, 1894 “Hudson Valley Republican” reported the death of his mother, Delia, widow of Matthew Beale. She had lived with her son in Schaghticoke since the death of her husband twelve years earlier. The April 14, 1898 edition reported that Newton had made extensive improvements in the buildings and fences on his large farm in Spencertown.
Newton’s office was in the rear of the grocery of Andrew Sipperly on the west side of Main Street, about where the bridge crosses now. The March 11, 1902 Troy “Times” recorded that he was operated on by Drs. Ferguson and Roarke of Troy, assisted by Drs Hutton of Valley Falls and Tarbell and Beale of Schaghticoke, but died a week later of heart failure. He had suffered from chronic laryngitis for the previous 15 months. He and both wives are buried in Elmwood Cemetery. Daughter Alma followed in his footsteps. At the time of her father’s death, she was listed in the census as a physician in Baltimore, where she had graduated from Johns Hopkins Medical School in 1900, but she returned to Schaghticoke to set up a practice soon after. Sadly, she died of heart disease at age 47 in 1915. In her will, she established the Dr. Edward Newton Beale Scholarship at Williams College. (Williams College Catalogue, 1918)
A third physician practiced in Schaghticoke in 1870. The public information about him is rather confusing. The 1870 County Directory lists Randolph Hinds as a physician and surgeon, but the 1865, 1870, and 1875 Censuses for Schaghticoke list him as John Robert Hinds. Ancestry.com says he was born in Hebron, Washington County in 1834. According to a Hinds family genealogy, he married a woman named Anna in 1854. They had two children. Ella was born in 1855. The 1865 census says she was born in England, the 1875 census in Oneida County! By 1858, the family lived in the Minnesota Territory, where son William was born that year, and John was listed as a merchant. Anna died and he married a woman named Fanny. John and Fanny had daughter Jennie in Washington or Rensselaer County in 1862, and son Howard in Schaghticoke in 1871. As of the 1865 NY census, John was listed as a physician here. Where did he get his training? Ancestry.com says he died in 1880, but I have no confirmation of that. Certainly, by the 1900 US Census, widow Fannie was living in New York City with her daughter Jennie and her husband.
One of the dentists in town had been in practice since about 1840. He was James Hornbrook (Hornibrook, Hornabrook), who was listed on the 1840 census. Born James and his wife Margaret were born in Ireland. They were different from the many other Irish in town in that they had arrived before the potato famine of the 1840’s, were educated, and were Presbyterian rather than Catholic. Son Robert was baptized in the Presbyterian Church in 1842. They had a second son Albert, born in 1844. The family lived and worked across the street from the Presbyterian Church on Main Street. Albert enlisted to fight in the Civil War with the local regiment in August 1862, but did not serve, possibly due to his poor health. Sadly, both sons died in 1880. The 1880 US census listed Robert as a dentist with his dad and Albert as a bookkeeper, suffering from “general debility.” He had been unable to work for a year. Ironically, the 1882 edition of the Transactions of the Dental Society of New York State listed father and sons as dentists, two years after the sons had died. It is not clear how much training any of them had. Training was very informal at the time James became a dentist, and more formal but not rigorous or licensed for the sons. James died in 1896 at age 80, and Margaret in 1907. They are all buried in Elmwood Cemetery.
A second dentist listed in the 1870 Rensselaer County directory for Schaghticoke was Hiram Button, who was also listed as a deputy sheriff, an interesting combination. I don’t know how he got his dental education. According his obituary (Nov 11, 1907 Troy “Times”) Hiram was born in 1824 in Old Schaghticoke (meaning the area around the Knickerbocker Mansion) to John and Mary Button, who had come here from Rhode Island. John died in 1832. As of the 1850 US Census, Hiram still lived with his mother Mary, and worked as a carder, presumably of wool. He was 25, and had brothers Horace, 27, and Harmon, 23.
I don’t know how Hiram received a dental education, but by the 1855 NY census, he was married, to Cynthia Louisa, had a daughter Alice, 4, and was described as a dentist. Hiram had a personal estate of just $150 in the 1860 US Census, so was not a terribly prosperous dentist. By that 1870 Rensselaer County Directory, Hiram and Cynthia Louisa had a son Charles Herbert, and Alice was working in the linen mill. From his placement on the 1875 NY Census, it seems that Hiram could have been lived south of the bridge. He lived in a large household with the Joseph Slocum family, so did not have his own home. He was listed in the 1882 edition of the Transactions of the Dental Society of New York as a dentist in Schaghticoke. Hiram was still listed as a dentist in the 1900 US Census, when he was 75 years old. His son Charles became a druggist. Finally in the 1905 NY Census, Hiram, now 80, was listed with no occupation. He died in 1907 and Cynthia in 1909. Sadly, his obituary did not describe his life story. Both are buried in Elmwood Cemetery.
Sidney Smith Congdon had what was a newer occupation, but an important one for a full-service community. He was the local insurance agent. He was a son of Ephraim Congdon, who had come to Schaghticoke from Rhode Island during our big industrial revolution of the 1820’s. Ephraim had been an early textile mill owner, but the 1855 NY Census listed him as a farmer at age 61. His wife, Harriet, was one of the daughters of Bethel Mather, another early mover and shaker in town. In this census, son Sidney, 21, was listed as a clerk. By the 1860 US Census, Sidney was listed as an insurance agent. The 1870 Rensselaer County Directory listed him as a general insurance agent and his brother Ephraim as a butcher, both located in the “Congdon Block,” certainly built by their father, and located next to the Schaghticoke House on lower Main Street in the village of Schaghticoke. Ephraim, Sr., had died in 1864 of cholera.
The Congdons attended the Presbyterian Church, but Sidney was suspended by the church in 1855. I don’t know why. He married Jane Bradley about 1865. The 1870 US census listed Sidney, age 36, an insurance agent, with Jane (Janette), 35, and daughters Jennie, 5, and Florence, 1, living on Main Street, north of 5th Street. Jane’s mother, Margaret Bradley, a Scottish immigrant, lived with the family. Sidney and his brother Ephraim served as village trustees and President of the village. Sidney was the postmaster of the village for quite a few years, a plum political appointment. They were both prominent in the Victor Masonic Lodge. His name appears in many local wills as either a witness or appraiser. He had his finger in many local pies. Janette died in 1897 and Sidney in 1899. They are buried in Elmwood Cemetery.
Another pillar of the community was Richard C. Gunner. He was born in Canterbury, England in 1826, but immigrated to Schaghticoke about 1852. He married Elizabeth Ablett, ten years younger, shortly after. She was the daughter of English immigrants who lived in the village of Schaghticoke. The 1855 NY Census showed the couple, Richard a baker. His brother John, a bit older, was in town that year, also working as a baker. He disappears thereafter, but helped Richard for a while. The Gunners lived and had their bakery just south of the Presbyterian Church. They had their children baptized there. Sons Richard and George died as small children, but daughters Mary and Elizabeth and son William, who followed his father as a baker, survived. The youngest son, Daniel, born in 1863, died in 1887 of typhoid.
Though the Gunners began as Presbyterians, they switched to the Methodist Church in the village about 1865, where Richard played a prominent role. Richard was also very involved in the new Victor Masonic Lodge, established in 1867. He was the baker in the village until about 1900, and his son continued after him. Wife Elizabeth died in 1898, so the 1900 US Census showed a family of Richard, 73; daughter Mary Ackart, 42, a widow, working as a teacher; son William, 41, a baker; and Elizabeth Fettis, 63, a widow who was their housekeeper. Mary had married farmer John B. Ackart about 1875, but he died of a fever in 1882. Richard Gunner died in 1913 at age 86. He left an estate of about $9000 to children William, Mary Ackart, and Lizzie Streeter. (Troy Times 1915)The Gunners are buried in Elmwood Cemetery.

richard gunner

Richard Gunner, from an album in the Masonic Hall

Richard Gunner was a newcomer to town, an immigrant to the U.S., who was well-accepted and a pillar of his new community. Garrett Groesbeck, proprietor of the Schaghticoke House, was a descendant of one of the earliest and most prolific families in the area. The Groesbecks came to Schaghticoke in the early 1700’s, living first in the area around the Knickerbocker Mansion, but expanding to live and farm all over town. Garrett had a rather different upbringing than most after a promising start. His father, Anthony, married Lucy Button, daughter of another prominent local family. Garrett was born in 1827. The family lived in the area of Schaghticoke Hill, just around where the Tomhannock Creek crosses route 40, where Lucy was buried after her death in 1849.
Interestingly, Lucy was listed as the head of household in 1840, a woman living with just her children and next door to her brother Ransom Button. Her husband Anthony was alive, as he showed up living with his son Walter in the 1860 census. We just won’t know what happened. Was he away working somewhere or were they separated? As of the 1850 US Census, Garrett, then 24, was a farmer living with his uncle Ransom Button and his family. By the 1855 NY census, he and his elder brother Walter, 32, were tavern landlords. I would love to know how they got the funding. The tavern was valued at $5000. Both brothers were married. Walter and wife Mariah had two children, and Garrett and wife Indiana, 23, had one child, son Edward, just 1.
Indiana was the only daughter of John and Susan Thomas, farmers in Berlin. The Thomas’ had some imagination, as two of her brothers were named John Appalachian Valley and Charles Hudson River Thomas. Indiana, unusually for the time, had attended the Troy Female Seminary, now Emma Willard School, from 1850-1852. I’m not sure how she and Garrett met, but they married in 1852.
When Garrett died in 1897, the Schaghticoke “Sun” ran an extensive obituary (January 8, 1897). Garrett, born in 1827, was known “far and wide” as a great landlord. He had first leased a tavern at Schaghticoke Hill for a few years, then the Schaghticoke House, in the village, from 1855 to 1860. The Schaghticoke House was near the current Sammy Cohen’s on lower Main Street. The 1855 NY Census showed he employed six servants and had eleven residents. So the Schaghticoke House was also a boarding house. The obituary states he then purchased a different saloon in the village, but was back in the Schaghticoke House by 1866. The censuses reflect that, with the 1860 US Census, showing Garrett as a “saloon keeper”, but with no residents in the building aside from him, his wife, and child plus Mickle (sic) McGraw, 30, the bar tender. It was foreclosed on in 1887 (Troy “Times”, March 4, 1887)
But the 1865 NY census showed Garrett as a hotel keeper in a building valued at $6000. He and Indiana had four servants, and the hotel had 13 residents. This would be the larger Schaghticoke House. Evidently while he still owned the smaller place, he purchased the Schaghticoke House. As of the 1870 US Census, he and Indiana employed a bar tender, a waiter, an “ostler”- hostler, who would have managed the stable, a chambermaid, and a cook. The chambermaid, Alice Lyons, was a single mother with two small children. Her elder son, 12, worked in the woolen mill. Seven people rented rooms in the inn, including the 19-year-old black barber, William Andrews. This must have been a pretty high-class place to live, as the residents included the Presbyterian minister and his wife, Jonathan and Caroline Noble. It seems that Garrett was overextended, as on December 7, 1872, the Troy “Times” reported foreclosure on the mortgage of the Schaghticoke House of Garrett Groesbeck, with a sheriff’s sale reported on February 7, 1873.
Garrett moved on to try store keeping for five years. This is reflected in the 1875 NY Census which lists him as a “grocery merchant”. Son Edward was his clerk. The store was where Tommy’s Tavern, or L.T.’s, is today, on lower Main Street. But Garrett made one more try at the hotel business, back in the Schaghticoke House in 1880. By now he was 52, son Edward, 15. They had two waiters, a cook, a bartender, a laborer, and, amazingly, 26 boarders. But on September 3, 1880, this came to an end as the same fire which consumed the new Opera House began in and destroyed the Schaghticoke House. I will discuss this more below.
It’s hard to know from the obituary if Garrett’s issues with money were because he was too generous a landlord, a bad money manager, prone to overextension of his businesses, or perhaps one issue was his propensity for owning “fine horses”, certainly an expensive hobby. Or perhaps he thrived on chaos! After the fire, Garrett retired “due to ill health.” But he survived until 1897. Son Edward died in 1908, and Indiana in 1918 at the home of her daughter-in-law in Troy. All are buried in Elmwood Cemetery, though I don’t believe they have tombstones.

american house

American House- at the junction of Main and School Streets

 

The Schaghticoke House was just one of the eating/drinking establishments in the village of Hart’s Falls. James C. Riley ran a saloon near the current Agway. Gilbert Rice had a billiard saloon on Main Street. Michael Mc Grath’s Brooklyn House was just south of the Hoosic River, now just south of the bridge on the west side of the road. Mr Birmingham had a saloon in the new Kane Block on Main Street. Michael Butler’s saloon was called the Central House. Probably the oldest tavern/hotel was the American House, located behind where the statue of the World War I soldier is now. John Downs was the owner in 1870. A few of these establishments also provided decent housing for people who were in town for a short time, or single men. The I.O.O.F. (Odd Fellows) had a lodge on the east side of Lower Main Street. It featured a large hall, Eagle Hall, upstairs, and meeting rooms for the G.A.R., the Civil War veterans organization, and the village government. The hall was used for many public functions.

opera-house.jpg

Baker’s Opera House, sadly a short-lived building

Baker’s Opera House, built about 1875 about where Sammy Cohen’s is now on lower Main Street, combined a number of functions in one building. It included at least five stores, a millinery shop, the room of the Catholic literary club, and the apartment of Charles Herrick, with the theatre on the upper floor, as was common. Two area survivals of this type are the Troy Music Hall, above the former Troy Savings Bank, and the Saratoga Music Hall, above the city government offices and the police station. An article in the Troy “Times” in 1875 reported 2000 people attending a political meeting there- twice the population of the village, a truly huge crowd.
The opera house was constructed by Lorenzo Baker. He and his brother Charles were sons of Ezekiel Baker, who was the prominent local physician from about 1820 until his death in 1866. I have written about these folks before: (https://schaghticokehistory.wordpress.com/2016/05/17/schaghticoke-in-1840/) Charles first worked for local magnate Amos Briggs and then became a general merchant. Lorenzo was a tailor and sold clothing. Both served in local government. Two of the retail spaces in the opera house were theirs. I will write about them again in a later article, as both were in business through the end of the century.
A devastating fire on September 3, 1880 destroyed the new Opera House plus the Schaghticoke House, where the fire began, and Thomas Jackson’s shoe store, Mrs Richard’s drug store, “the elegant residence belonging to the estate of E. Congdon,” a “tenement” house with four apartments, and Charles Wilbur’s home. The Masonic lodge was on the upper floor of the Schaghticoke House, and they lost everything. One thing the village did not have was a fire department. The Troy fire department was summoned by telegraph, but by the time they arrived, on a special train able to carry a fire truck, the fire had done lots of damage. Members of the Cohoes fire department were in town for a target shoot, and they helped the local bucket brigade.
The Troy “Times” reported “the hotel, (the Schaghticoke House) which was filled with boarders, was the scene of THE WILDEST EXCITEMENT. Women ran screaming into the street…Beds and bedding, crockery ware by the wagon load …covered the sidewalk for a distance of several hundred feet…” The Opera House, described in the newspaper as the finest building in town, burned next. It was not rebuilt.
In the course of my research, I came across a very shocking series of newspaper articles about the village of Schaghticoke in the late 1870’s through 1882. An article in the Troy Daily Times on August 9, 1880 stated that the village was “visited by a scourge which destroyed 1/12 of the population,” three different types of malarial fever. In the first epidemic of diphtheria, which began in June 1874 and lasted 11 months, there were over 475 cases and 120 died. “The effect of this unprecedented mortality was paralyzing. Many people moved away from the pestilential locality.” A letter to the newspaper on August 14, 1880 from Dr. D.H. Tarbell, of whom I wrote above, “the Village of Schaghticoke has for the past five years been a very sickly place. The terrible scourge of diphtheria, which prevailed here in the years of 1875 and 1876 carried to the grave about 125 victims from the village.” There were many cases in 1879 as well, he said.
The articles went on to say that in the fall of 1878 there was “malarial fever of an intermittent” form, confined to the village. Though village officials and the local doctors tried to prevent it, the fever increased, with over 500 cases reported. There was also a variety when “an eruption breaks out over the body” with “intolerable itching” which lasted five days. A final kind was a typhoid malarial fever which lasted from two weeks to a month, with 10% fatalities.
A Dr Ward of Troy stated that the cause of these diseases was the creation of a swamp after the construction of the Albany Northern Railroad. At the time, which would have been about 1855, “the channel of the river was diverted away from the village”, creating an embankment between the village and the river, and hence “a miasmic swamp of fifty acres.” The swamp poisoned the atmosphere. I don’t have any idea if any of this is accurate, and why it was finally written about in 1880, five years after the events.
Dr Ward said that making a culvert through the embankment would restore a portion of the river to its original channel and allow the swamp to fill and drain. The problem embankment was outside the bounds of the village, limiting the power of the village to require amelioration. In 1882 (Troy “Times” October 2, 1882) the Governor ordered several entities in Schaghticoke to remove their “malarial nuisance”: John A. Baucus, who had the farm which bordered Electric Lake to the north, the Schaghticoke Powder Company, located just across the river from the village, and the Hart Estate, which owned much of the property in the southern part of the village. No one property or person was held at fault: the state was just trying to target all the possible causes of the problem. After this, the Troy “Times” had no more information about the problem. I also don’t know if the reports of deaths are true, but Dr. Tarbell would seem a reputable reporter. He had begun practicing medicine in the village at this time, and had a young child die of cholera, perhaps as a part of this epidemic.

Two major industries were just developing in town around 1870: the Cable Flax Mill and several paper mills. First, I will discuss the truly new industry, the paper mills. There were two paper mills on the Hoosic River at Schaghticoke in 1870 and one on the Schaghticoke side of the river at Valley Falls. According to “Changes in Print Paper during the 19th Century” by AJ Valente, up until about 1830 paper had been made from rags- mostly from linen or hemp. Rag pickers collected discarded clothing and it was recycled to make paper. Obviously this limited the amount of paper which could be made, and as the demand for paper grew with the development of newspapers, inventors tried using all sorts of fiber to make paper. A family in Pennsylvania developed paper made partly with straw around 1830, others made paper from old manila ropes, sails, etc., then manila and straw was combined. In 1860, a company in Fort Edward patented a method of making paper from straw, filtering out the many impurities of dirt and weeds. We now have paper made of wood pulp, which was developed after 1870. The local mills at this time all made paper from straw, a process which must have resulted in lots of pollution entering the Hoosic River, as the process used caustic soda and bleach to whiten the paper. And the paper was still not really white. The technology used was short-lived, though making paper from wood pulp was no less polluting. I have not tried to figure out where all the straw for the mills came from. Presumably as much as possible came from local farmers, but the agricultural censuses for 1870 and 1880 did not have a tabulation of straw produced on farms.

charlespickett

Lewis Pickett- his father owned the paper mill, but Lewis got stuck in the machinery!

One of the mills at the village of Schaghticoke was owned by Lewis Pickett and Son. I have written about both Picketts before. Lewis was a carpenter and a speculator, listed in the 1850 US census as having gone West to prospect for gold. He returned and lived in the lovely house at 133 Main Street, across the street from Diver Library, with his wife and only son, Charles. He manufactured melodeons there for a time around 1855-60. Charles went off to the Civil War as a Lieutenant in the local regiment, though he did not thrive as a soldier and managed to get out of the Army before the battle of Gettysburg. The 1865 NYS census listed Lewis as a carpenter, but by 1870 he had invested $17,000 in a straw paper mill, with a water wheel producing 60 horse power, and two paper engines. He employed ten men and one woman and in 1869 used 1,150,000 pounds of straw worth $9000 to make 800,000 pounds of straw paper worth $22,500.
Charles, who was Town Clerk in 1869 and Justice of the Peace in 1873, was President of the newly incorporated village of Harts Falls (Schaghticoke) from 1870-1873. Of course he also worked with his dad, hence “Pickett and Son.” An article in the Troy “Times” on August 15, 1870 reported that “while regulating one of the cylinders of the machinery he was caught by the belting and drawn into the machinery and considerably bruised, but no bones were broken.” The mill was quite short-lived, as Lewis Pickett died suddenly in April 1872 (Troy Times, April 11, 1872) of a heart attack. The obituary called him “head of the extensive paper manufacturing concern,” and added that his son Charles was also “confined to his house by sickness.”
At the same time Charles was working with his dad and serving as the President of the village, the Presbyterian Church was citing him for drunkenness, profanity, and unchristian behavior. He was suspended as a member in 1873. Tellingly, Lewis’ will left his money to his wife and his nephew, not to his son. Though his mother continued to live in Schaghticoke, Charles does not appear in the 1875 or 1880 censuses. Sylvester’s “History of Rensselaer County,” published in 1880, states that the paper mill of Lewis Pickett was taken over by John Baucus, John Banker, and John Buckley, then the men who owned the second mill described below, plus David Button.
The 1870 US Census lists the Pickett mill and a second- and different- straw paper mill in the gorge of the Hoosic River at Schaghticoke, this one owned by James W. Baucus and Frederick Wiley. They had invested $18,000, had two water wheels producing 60 horse power, and two paper engines, employing ten men, one woman, and one child. The mill used 1,200,000 pounds of straw worth $9,600 to make 830,000 pounds of paper worth $22,825 in 1869. The 1880 census, which may reflect the two mills which the men now owned, reported that J.W. Baucus and Co. had $33,000 invested in its mill. It employed 18 men, one woman, and one child, who worked 12 hours a day year round and made from $1-$1.20 per day. The mill had been idle one month- this could have been in summer with low water or winter with a frozen river. It had two paper machines, 48 inches wide, and six water wheels to provide power: four tub, one Collins, and one Rich. Collins and Rich were both patented types of wheels. In 1864, 864 tons of straw and an indecipherable amount of pulp made 764 tons of wrapping paper, worth $19,500.

Collins tub wheel

The partners in the mill both lived near the current Schaghticoke Town Hall in Melrose. James W. Baucus, born in 1812, was a son of John Baucus and Maria Wetsel. The Baucus family had been in the town since at least 1800. I believe they were descendants of Palatine immigrants, with their name originally spelled something like Backes. A little booklet about the history of Melrose published in 1976 says they were from Holland on one page, and that they were German on another. It also says that John was born in Dutchess County and came to town as a child with his father William. Indeed William and a different John Backes are both in the census for Schaghticoke in 1800. Most of the Baucus family were members of St. John’s Lutheran Church, located at the junction of Valley Falls Road and Northline Drive. John and Maria had a large family: sons William, Daniel, Elisha, George W., John A, James W., and Joseph, and daughters Eliza, Julia Ann and Hannah Jane. John, who died in 1832, was a prosperous farmer. And his sons were prominent members of the community.
The 1856 town map shows twelve farms in the Melrose area owned by James W., Elisha, William, and George W. Baucus including the land where the town hall is now, plus the farm across the street at the corners of Gutbrodt Road and route 40, and the Wertman farm on Pinewoods Road. James, the focus of my attention here, was a farmer for many years, but the 1870 US Census called him a farmer and paper manufacturer, with real estate valued at the very high figure of $60,566. The figure in the 1865 NY Census had been just $3000, so this helps pinpoint when he got involved in the paper mill. . James was married to Maria Swartout. That 1865 NY census listed the family: James, 52; Maria, 46; and children Francis, 21, Alida, 19, Elizabeth 17, Loretta, 15, J. Irving, 13, and Elva, 9, plus Maria’s father James Swartout, 79. They had in all eight daughters and one son, plus a child who died in infancy.
John A. Baucus, brother of James, was also a farmer, but his farm was the one just at the northeast end of the village of Schaghticoke. The house is just south of Hoosic Valley Elementary School on Pleasant Avenue. John married Elizabeth Bryan Banker, another local person, in 1851. She and John had two surviving children, J. Bryan and Jessie. Besides dabbling in milling, John invested in real estate locally and in Minnesota and Wisconsin. In his 1884 will, he left his piano and about $5000 to his daughter Jessie, plus two houses at the corner of Main and 5th Street and the “Perry Premises,” while son J. Bryan received the farm, and the two children split his real estate outside the town equally. (Banker Family Genealogy)
The Baucus’ were almost all involved in local politics and business. John A. served as town supervisor from 1857-1858 and as a trustee of the village; his brother William was town supervisor in 1863, and his brother Elisha from 1868-70. Brother George was a justice of the peace. Unusually in this town at least, Elisha was a Democrat. He was Chair of the Rensselaer County Board of Supervisors in 1870. Brothers James, John, and William were elected directors of the Rensselaer County Bank in January, 1864, (Troy Times January 8, 1864), three of the five directors on the board. James, the paper manufacturer died in 1899. His obituary, April 6, 1899, reported that he had “at one time been a large holder of real estate, prominently identified with all public matters.” “Landmarks of Rensselaer County” describes him as a “farmer, paper manufacturer, and speculator in real estate.” (p 34)

James Baucus’ son-in-law and partner Frederick Wiley lived and farmed just south of him and today’s town hall on the east side of route 40. Frederick, born in 1833, was the son of William and Anna Herrick Wiley of Pittstown. “Landmarks of Rensselaer County” states he attended Fort Edward Institute and Charlotteville Seminary and taught school for four terms before becoming a farmer.(p 31) In 1861 he married Hester Baucus, one of the eight daughters of partner James. Like James, the census listed him as a farmer in the 1865 NY Census. Frederick, 32, and Hester, 23, had two children, William Elmer, 3, and Clara, 1. He was still listed as a farmer in the 1870 US Census, but as a paper manufacturer in the 1875 NY Census and the 1880 US Census. Frederick’s obituary on March 22, 1896 reported that he had joined the paper-making firm of his father-in-law JW Baucus and moved to the village of Schaghticoke in 1871. After James left the firm in 1878, David M. Button joined Frederick and the firm was renamed Wiley and Button. The factory was still in business when Frederick died.
Like the Baucus men, Frederick served his town as well. He was town clerk from 1875-76 and town supervisor from 1885-1888. An article in the Troy “Times” on March 4, 1888 reported that he was a candidate for his third term as supervisor – each term was just one year- In a “triangular fight”- presumably there were three candidates- “he received a plurality of 157 over the Democratic opponent. He did not seek the office. He was chosen because he was considered to be the very best man to fill it.” Later that year, Supervisor Wiley swore out a complaint against George Beecroft, the tax collector of Schaghticoke and a butcher, who had failed to pay the full amount of taxes to the county treasurer, having kept about $1600! Beecroft had been found in front of the American House (located behind the World War I statue in the village), where he was watching a circus parade. (Troy Times May 31, 1888). I love this article as it tells us that governmental malfeasance is nothing new, and that there was a circus in town!
Frederick also served as President of the village of Schaghticoke, a Justice of the Peace, and was on the board of the Methodist Church and the Union Free School District. During his term as President of the village, he worked with the town to get a pedestrian walk added to the bridge over the Hoosic River at Schaghticoke.
The third paper mill was at Valley Falls, with buildings located on both sides of the bridge crossing the Hoosic River on the Schaghticoke side. The mill was owned by Thomas Lape in 1870. The 1870 US census reports that he had $30,000 invested in his mill, with a water wheel generating 75 horse power, plus two paper engines. He employed ten men and four women, and used 1,600,000 pounds of straw worth $9000 and 800 barrels of lime worth $750, plus 500 tons of coal and oil worth $1000 to make 1,300,000 pounds of straw paper worth $34,000 in 1869.
The 1880 US census, at which point C.J. Stark and John Kenyon operated this mill, reported that the mill had $24,000 invested in it, twelve male employees and five female, and no children, who worked twelve hours a day year round, making $1-$1.50 per day. The mill had one cylinder paper machine, 58 inches wide, and used three water-powered American turbines to produce 90 horsepower. In 1879 it used 864 tons of straw and an indecipherable amount of wood pulp to make 642 tons of wrapping paper worth $16,050. This was slightly smaller than the Baucus mill in the village of Schaghticoke.

Thomas Lape

Thomas Lape was instrumental in the development of both the villages of Valley Falls and Schaghticoke. He was born in 1828 in Greenbush, Rensselaer County, attended the Lansingburgh Academy, and taught school in Speigletown for one year. Thomas went into trade in Lansingburgh in 1851, selling lumber, plaster, grain, and straw for five years, then began to manufacture flax yarn and twine with a partner there. Thomas moved operations to Valley Falls around 1858, where he built a paper mill. It made “straw board and wrapping paper.” The 1860 US census for Schaghticoke lists Thomas, 32, as a flax and twine manufacturer with real estate worth $15,000 and a personal estate of $5,000. This implies that he retained his interest in the flax mill. And he lived in the town of Schaghticoke.
By the 1865 NY Census Thomas was living in the Pittstown portion of Valley Falls. He bought the property called the Promised Land, to the east of State Street in the village of Valley Falls. In 1863 and 1869. It was meant to be developed as an extension of the village of Valley Falls. The 1877 Beers Atlas shows the layout of the Promised Land, with Thomas’ home at the eastern end. The 1870 US census for Pittstown shows his growing prosperity. At 42, he had real estate valued at $80,000 and a personal estate worth $40,000. Showing that desire of businessmen to be farmers, his profession was listed as “farmer.” An article in the Troy “Times” in July 1872 reported that he had invented a new potato digger, “the plan of which is different from any machine of the kind.” Thomas sold his controlling share in the Hoosic Valley Paper Mill around 1872, because he had bigger fish to fry. The mill continued. An article in the Troy “Times” in 1888 reported that the Valley Falls Paper Manufacturing Company was running full time, with twenty men making 7000 pounds of straw wrapping paper per day.
Meanwhile Thomas Lape was very active in the Prohibition or Temperance Party, running for NYS Assembly and US Congress as a candidate of that party. Thomas was married three times. He and wife Martha had five children, three of whom died young. She died in 1861 and he married Emily Stover Hamblin, widow of Myron Hamblin. They had two children, who died, and she herself died in 1867. He then married Nellie Stickles in 1869. They had twins Clarence and Clara, but Clara also died young. A street in the Promised Land was named for each of them.
Thomas sold his share in the paper mill as he organized the Chicago Stove works in 1872, building a foundry in that city. He also purchased the old Schaghticoke Linen Mills, which he reorganized as the Cable Flax Mills. A note in the Troy ”Times” of September 8, 1871 had advertised “For sale or to let: the Schaghticoke Linen Mill.” Thomas had had experience with flax in Lansingburgh, and bought the mill. He served as President of the company, E.A. Hartshorn as Secretary, and EE Starks as Treasurer. Starks was replaced by CC Hill shortly after. An article in the Troy “Times” on October 19, 1872 reported that “work has been resumed in the cable flax mill. It has been suspended for nearly five weeks on account of the putting in of a new water wheel and flume. The wheel was manufactured by Geo. W. Eddy of Waterford, and is of 75 horse power. It stands beside the old wheel and the machinery of the mill is now propelled by the force of both, which is about 165 horse power. The flume is of chestnut, 22 feet wide. The work has been done by CJ Starks of Valley Falls.”

Charles J. Stark

CJ was Charles J. Stark. It seems like he had been preparing to be a mill owner for a long time. He was a son of Silas and Susan Stark, born in Raymertown in 1821. As of the 1850 US Census, he and wife Rhoda Brownell were farmers in Pittstown, but the 1855 NY Census called him a mill wright, the 1860 US Census a flax dresser, the 1865 NY Census a farmer and miller. In 1868 he bought the 250 acres of what had been the Isaac Tallmadge farm, still the Stark farm, for $33,500 from Isaac’s son William. The house for the farm is at the corner of Bunker Hill Road and Master Street. He bought 32 more acres, bordering Lape’s Paper Mill lot, for $6,750 later the same year. (Book 137 of deeds, p. 238, 406)

Rhoda Brownell Stark

The 1876 Beers Atlas reflected this purchase, showing the Starks lived in Schaghticoke, just up the road from the Lape paper mill on the Schaghticoke side of Valley Falls. The 1870 US Census for Schaghticoke listed Charles, 48, as a farmer. He and wife Rhoda, 49, had children Charles B., 15; Helen, 19; Emily, 18; and Isabel, 13. Next door was John Kenyon, 41, who was a bookkeeper, and his wife Harriet Slocum, 37. Both John and Harriet were local people, John the son of farmer Benoni Kenyon, and Harriet of farmer Lewis B. Slocum. The 1875 NY Census listed Charles Stark as a mill wright. Son Charles Byron had moved into his own home, next door, and was listed as a paper maker, as was John Kenyon, next door to the Starks. I thought I would find a deed with the Valley Falls Paper Company passing from Thomas Lape to Stark and Kenyon, but I did not. Perhaps the men leased it, perhaps I missed the deed. The Beers Atlas of 1876 lists Charles as the President and John Kenyon as the Secretary of the Valley Falls Paper Company. Charles J. took another step common for important local men and served as Supervisor of the town in 1879. Sadly, Charles died of heart disease in 1880, wife Rhoda of pneumonia the following year, ending a promising career.

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Cable Flax Mills, street side

Returning to the village of Schaghticoke, or Harts Falls as it was at the time, the Cable Flax Mills, which made all sorts of twine and woven tape, became its economic powerhouse. An article in the Troy “Times” on March 20, 1874 reported that the mill made flax twines and shoe threads, with 200-250 employees using 6000 pounds of raw material per day to make 5000 pounds of finished goods per day, “supplying largely the markets of the world” with offices in New York and San Francisco .” A further article in the Troy “Times” on August 13, 1880 stated that it employed 900 employees, a very large number in a village of under 2000 people, and I think exaggerated. The 200-250 estimate was more accurate, I believe.
Whole families worked for the mill. For example, in the 1880 US Census, widow Mary Johnson, born in Ireland, did not work, but her son Robert, 21, and daughter Mary Ann, 14, worked in the woolen mill, and daughters Jane, 20, Elner, 19, and Martha, 13, and son Mathew, 17, worked in the linen mill. In the 1875 NY Census, father Michael Shaunnesy (sic) worked in the powder mill, but children Ellen, 16, Michael, 14, and Margaret, 13, worked in the linen mill. Yes, this is child labor, very common at the time.
The Cable Flax Mills had an almost immediate impact on the housing stock of the village. An article in the Troy “Times” on September 28, 1872 reported that “the row of tenement houses on the West street of the village is not completed….named Hill Place after CC Hill of the Flax Mills…the houses are…so neat and tastefull (sic) as to much improve that part of the village and reflect credit on the architect Mr Cummings of Troy and the carpenter Mr Dodd of Cambridge and the painters VanSchaack and son of this place.” This article has, I believe, a critical error. What came to be known as the “Cable Flax Mill Tenements”, were in fact on East, not West Street, and are now called “the brick row.” The architect was Marcus Cummings, designer of a number of buildings in Troy, including the Ilium Building. The painters were William and Chauncy VanSchaack. William, who had been a Sergeant in the local 125th Regiment in the Civil War, was also a carriage and ornamental painter. And the financer- and namesake- was Calvin C. Hill, an interesting guy. I will talk about him more below.

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Cable Flax Mills, river side

Thomas Lape stepped down as the President of the Cable Flax Mills in 1881, with Edwin A. Hartshorn being promoted to the job. I spoke of Thomas last week. He lived in the village of Valley Falls and attempted residential development of the area east of State Street, the “Promised Land.” Thomas had a number of other businesses on the Hoosic River in Valley Falls. For example in 1885 he traveled to purchase machinery for his pulp mills in 1885 (Troy Times July 15, 1885). “The old wheels at Mr Lape’s red mill were replaced, the wheel pit enlarged.” An article in the paper in 1888 reported on the flour, grist, pulp, and plaster mills of Thomas Lape at Valley Fallls. The pulp mill processed two to three tons of wood pulp daily.
Thomas was also active in his community of Valley Falls, chairing the building committee for the new Methodist Church in 1882 (Troy Times Dec. 23, 1882), speaking at the Farmer’s Institute in 1889 (Troy Times, Nov 16, 1892), serving as the President of the Valley Falls Musical Association in 1889, (Troy Times Jan 14, 1889), running as the Prohibition candidate for county judge in 1890 (Troy Times Nov 12, 1890). Thomas died on November 6, 1898 (Troy Times Nov. 7, 1898), reported as “one of the best known men in the county. …He was an active promoter of several industries and interested himself in the development of the pretty village of Valley Falls.”

Edwin A. Hartshorn had been involved in the Cable Flax Mills from the start. He was born in Petersburg in 1841, a teacher by age 19, and enlisted in August 1862 as the 1st Lieutenant of Company E of the 125th NY Infantry Regiment in the Civil War. He was promoted to Captain shortly after. He was discharged from the Army in November 1863 after months of illness, but despite his relatively short and uneventful time in the Army- he missed all of the battles of the 125th- he plunged himself into the activities of the veterans of the war. I don’t know what experience or acquaintances led him to be named Secretary of the Cable Flax Mills when they were founded in 1871, at the tender age of 30. The Secretary was not a note-taker, but one of the chief executive officers of the company. Though Edwin never lived in Schaghticoke, he obviously had great influence here. The local post of the Grand Army of the Republic, the Civil War veterans’ organization, was named for him.
Edwin was also very active in Republican politics, becoming friends with future President William McKinley and serving on the Common Council in Troy, where he lived. He was a national leader in the American Protective Tariff League, working hard to get the products of the Schaghticoke mill protected by tariffs from competition from such places as India, where wages were tiny. (There’s nothing new under the sun!)He also worked hard to boost growth of hemp and flax in the area, through the Flax and Hemp Spinners and Growers’ Association of America (Washington County Post Nov 15, 1889). The Cable Flax mill did buy foreign flax- an article in the Troy “Times” on August 18, 1874 reported “E.A. Hartshorn off to Europe.” Hartshorn implied that it was foreign competition which led the mill to produce twine and tape rather than fabric, which could be made so much more cheaply in India. I will report more about the Cable Flax Mills in a separate article in the future.
There were several mills in Schaghticoke which provided materials to the Cable Flax Mill. Local farmers grew the flax, had it processed at these mills and then sold it to be made into twine and woven tape. These were seasonal mills on small streams throughout the town. One was that of Smith Cass. The 1870 US Census shows he had $1600 invested in a flax dressing mill, plus a saw and cider mill. Eleven men worked in the flax mill, processing 450 tons of flax worth $15,730. Smith Cass is separately listed in the 1870 US Census as a flax manufacturer with real estate worth $7000. Smith, 36, and his wife Helen, 32, had two children. Five of their employees lived with them. I don’t know where his mill was. He appears in no other census in Schaghticoke, and was a farmer in the Cambridge area by 1880.
Nathan Aiken had a much bigger investment- $24,000 – in his flax dressing mill on the Wampaconk Creek. A 40 horsepower water wheel and 12 employees dressed 600 tons of flax straw worth $21,000 and made 90 tons of flax lint worth $28,800 and 22 tons of flax tow worth $910. The tow was a by-product which could be made into rope. W.H. Buckley, a neighbor of Aiken, also had a flax dressing mill on the Wampaconk. More about him later.

Nathan Gould Akin, from an ancestry.com family tree

Nathan Gould Akin (1823-1886) was another well-off local farmer. Unlike the others I have written about, he did not get involved in local politics. Nathan’s mother was a Gifford, another prominent local family. He married Phebe Hoag in 1849. They began married life in Pittstown, living in his childhood home with his recently widowed mother and his sisters. By the 1855 NY Census, they had bought a farm in a bend of the Powampaconk Creek on what would become known as Akin Road. They had four children: Hoag, Ella, Armenia, and Arthur.
By the 1870 US census, Nathan valued his farm at $29,500. He had 166 improved, and 20 unimproved acres, seven horses, five milk cows, two oxen, 16 sheep, and ten swine. Nathan grew similar items to his neighbors: rye, Indian corn, oats, and buckwheat, and a rather large amount of potatoes: 1600 pounds. He grew more flax than most of his neighbors: 3200 pounds and produced 64 bushels of flax seed. Different than his neighbors, at least for part of his life he had his own mill on the Wampaconk Creek to process flax. Nathan would have had a ready market for this flax locally. A letter from shortly after Nathan began farming in Schaghticoke, 1851, showed him selling $918 worth of flax to Amos Briggs, who was then running the flax mill on the Hoosic River. An 1853 letter recorded a $1000 purchase. Amos bought flax locally, but also from Belgium and Ireland, not able to buy enough for his needs in this area.
The 1880 US census showed Nathan growing a bit less flax: 2400 pounds, but listed 7 tons of straw- was he growing straw for the local paper companies? Several of his neighbors also grew flax and straw. Nathan died suddenly in 1886 at age 60, the newspaper said of heart disease, but if it was sudden, it may have been a heart attack.
There was another small mill in Schaghticoke about 1875, with a tangential connection to the Cable Flax Mills. This allows us an interesting snapshot of both the vagaries of the textile business, and of a man who made just a brief impact on our town. The 1870 US Census for Troy shows Edwin Hartshorn, twine merchant and future President of the Cable Flax Mills, living next door to Calvin C. Hill, another twine merchant. Calvin was just E.A. Hartshorn’s age, 28, with a wife, Eliza, and a son Walter, 1. And though C.C., as he was called, was born near Watertown, NY, his mother was from Petersburg, as was Hartshorn. Perhaps the men had known each other before. They must have gotten on well, as when Hartshorn came to work in Schaghticoke the next year Hill followed, becoming Treasurer of the mill a year or so later. Hartshorn and family continued to live in Troy, but C.C. moved his family to the village. They lived just south of the Picketts on Main Street, almost across the street from Diver Library today. He built “Hill Place,” the housing for the mill workers described above in 1872. An article in the Troy “Times” that fall reported that the housing was already all rented.
Unlike Hartshorn, Hill did not remain with the flax mill. Interestingly, his occupation in the 1875 NY Census was listed as “speculator,” but by the 1876 Beers Atlas, he was listed as the proprietor of the Eagle Shirt Works, housed on lower Main Street in the village, almost across the street from where Tommy’s Tavern is now. The Troy “Times” of May 23, 1876 reported that “not withstanding the general depression of business, the mills (of Schaghticoke) have been running thus far. CC Hill has removed his store and shirt manufactory to Eagle Hall block. He employs a hundred operatives.” I think that many of the workers or operatives made the shirts at home, perhaps with sewing machines purchased from Hill. Beers Atlas described him as “agent for Wheeler and Wilson sewing machines, manufacturer of shirts, overalls, and cottonade pants, machines to be sold, to be paid by easy monthly payments, work furnished to parties to assist with paying for the machines.” But all was not smooth. The Troy “Times” of October 16, 1876 reported that C.C. had bought $1000 worth of boots and shoes from a man and was selling them off, hoping to use the proceeds to pay off his creditors. The shoes were seized by the sheriff when those creditors became concerned that C.C. was keeping the money for himself. But Hill’s business survived: the October 4, 1880 Troy “Times” reported that “the Eagle Shirt Works have just completed an order of 1200 shirts for a Boston firm and have received a new order from the same firm for 5,000 dozen more, necessitating the enlarging of its working capacity.”
At the same time that he was wheeling and dealing, C.C. also was very active in the government of the village of Hart’s Falls, as Schaghticoke was known at the time. He was elected trustee several times, and served as the health inspector. This post could have been very important and controversial in view of the “malarial” problems in the village during those years. But C.C. moved on. He was in the village as late as 1883, when the newspaper reported that he had been ill, but was improving (Troy “Times”January 6, 1883). In 1888, his home was sold for non-payment of mortgage. (Troy “Times” June 2, 1888) His wife Eliza died in 1892. I’m not sure if C.C. and Eliza were still married at the time. She is buried in Troy and at the time of the foreclosure, she alone was mentioned as living in the house in the village. If the 1900 US Census is correct, C.C. married a Sarah Jordan in 1885. A tiny article in the Troy “Times” on September 15, 1892 stated that C.C., a former resident, was visiting Schaghticoke from Texas. He died in New York City in 1908, having been a salesman for the Ostrander Fire Brick Company there for fifteen years. He is buried in Elmwood Cemetery.

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Schaghticoke Woolen Mill

The Schaghticoke Woolen Mill was another economic powerhouse of 1870. Like the Cable Flax Mill, it had its origins in the very early years of the village of Schaghticoke, just before 1800, when there were several wool processing and wool spinning mills. Later there were a couple of woolen mills including looms, but they were more or less successful financially and prone to fire.
When partner Betsey Hart finally succeeded in forcing Amos Briggs to close their cotton mill in the village, around 1865, Briggs managed to get backers to open a new woolen mill at the same time. He must have been a very persuasive man, as he was deeply in debt himself. Sylvester’s “History of Rensselaer County” states the mill was founded in 1864 by a company of which Amos Briggs was President and D. Thomas Vail treasurer. “The company erected the present large and convenient buildings, supplying them with the best of modern machinery. The goods made are fancy cassimeres, and 175 hands are employed.” This all sounds fabulous. The 1870 US Census reported that the mills had real estate and fixtures worth $250,000. Two water wheels provided 125 horse power to ten carding machines, 40 looms, and 4050 speeders (part of the spinning process). The mills employed 56 men, 48 women, and 65 children under 16 and in a year used 425,000 pounds of wool plus some silk and 500 tons of dye stuff to make 125,000 yards of fabric worth $375,000.

Schaghticoke Woolen Mill from 1889 Bird’s Eye View

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Schaghticoke Woolen Mill, 1876 map

David Thomas Vail became President of the mills in 1868. Amos Briggs was an elderly man at this point; he died in 1874. Vail was the son of George Vail, a very successful Troy man, who began in the dry goods business but ended as the founder and President of the Merchants and Mechanics Bank in 1829, instrumental in the Troy Orphan Asylum and the Troy Savings Bank, plus a founder of the Rensselaer County Agricultural Society. He was also a breeder of cattle. D. Thomas took over for his father as President of the Merchants and Mechanics Bank in 1851. He was also President of the Troy and Boston Railroad from 1854 to 1878- following Amos Briggs in that role-and President of the Troy Union Railroad in 1852- which built the first Troy train depot and connected the various railroads entering the city; etc. He was married to Phoebe Bloom Hart, one of the many daughters of Amos Briggs’ partner, Betsey Hart, the widow of Richard P. Hart. Their son was named Richard P. Hart Vail. So Vail certainly knew the financial situation of Briggs, the whole history of the Hart-Briggs relationship, and the prospects for a woolen mill in Schaghticoke. And amazingly to me, Betsey Hart, mother-in-law of D. Thomas and former disgruntled partner of Amos Briggs, invested in the mill.
I’m sure D. Thomas wasn’t involved in the mills on a day-to-day business. The 1860 US Census listed his occupation as “farmer.” The 1868 Troy City Directory did list him as President of the bank and the railroad, and listed his house as “River View, Mount Ida.” This would have been an estate on the hill to the east of the city of Troy.
After Sylvester’s “History” describes the wonderful woolen mills, it goes on to report that they went bankrupt and closed in 1878! Apparently finances at the mill had precipitously worsened after the Panic of 1873, a world-wide economic dislocation and depression. An article in the Troy “Daily Times” of October 3, 1883 reported on the court case which resulted after the scandalous discovery that the Merchants and Mechanics Bank had concealed from state bank examiners that it was $400,000 in debt- about $7 million today- all of it bad debts from the Schaghticoke Woolen Mill. Of course D. Thomas Vail was the President of the bank…and of the mill, certainly a terrific conflict of interest. D. Thomas died in February 1882, rather conveniently getting himself out of a heap of trouble. Daniel Robinson, the vice-president of the bank, was stuck with the mess and the scandal. The mill had been $156,000 in debt in 1872, which increased to $358,000 by 1876 and over $400,000 by 1878. D. Thomas had duped both Robinson and the head teller- the major financial officer of a bank- into believing that all was really okay. Poor Robinson had poured lots of his own money into the mill, taking over day-to-day operations and trying to make a go of it. The case went on in the courts until at least 1886, though where anyone thought any pay out was going to come from, I don’t know.
A letter to the creditors of the Merchants and Mechanics’ Bank written March 10, 1879 states the basic fact of the bank’s failure due to the enormous indebtedness of the Woolen Mill, and also gives a nice description of the mill: “a valuable mill site and water-power, a large four-story brick factory, in size 180 feet long, by 54 feet wide, with wings, a gas house, and other erections. The buildings are fully furnished with machinery adapted to make the finest quality of woolen goods made in America. The machinery includes 40 looms, 8 mules (spinning machines), drying machinery, washer, &c. all of the most approved style, with the latest improvements, and nearly as good as new. The whole property cost upwards of $250,000.” The point of the description was to get someone to buy the mill for a fair price, thereby ensuring some sort of payout to the creditors of the bank.
A second letter, written by Betsy Hart and dated June 28, 1879, listed the stockholders of the mill and required the 18 who had money- D. Thomas Vail and Augustus E. Masters, Jr., one of the Masters family from Schaghticoke, had none- to each give $216 to pay the salaries due the workers when the mill closed, amounting to $3,700 in total. It seems to me that this was a very generous move by the stockholders towards their poor employees. Of course the focus on all of this high finance should be seen beside what must have been a horrible stress for the poor employees, all residents of the village of Schaghticoke. No wonder the village was named Harts Falls for her for a while. These letters are in the Hart papers at the Rensselaer County Historical Society. Betsey Hart had been partner in a number of mills with local Amos Briggs, and was owner of what is now the Hart-Cluett House, 59 2nd Street, the historic home which is part of the RCHS.
The Schaghticoke Woolen Mills were quickly re-opened in 1879 by J.J. Joslin of Buskirk’s Bridge. Sylvester’s “History of Rensselaer County,” published in 1880 reported “The mills are now doing a large business, running overtime, and finding a quick sale for all their products.” What we would now call a “puff piece” about the mills was published in the Washington County “Post” on January 23, 1880. Perhaps its purpose was to rehabilitate the reputation of the village, after its long siege with diphtheria and “malarial disease,” and then the bankruptcy of the mill. “Along the surface of the adjoining precipitous rocks (of the lower falls of the Hoosic River at Schaghticoke) stretch the massive walls of the Schaghticoke Woolen Mill, its shining towers and pinnacles and picturesque façade calling to mind some ancient castle in Rhineland.” The article describes mill apparatus in similar style, from the “mammoth scourer”, which can clean 4,000 pounds of wool a day; to the design department, “whose sacred precincts the vulgar throng cannot enter”; to the “huge hanks of yarn of all the colors of the rainbow”. The third story is the spinning room, the second the carding room, and the first, the weaving room, filled with imported looms, which can turn out 160,000 yards of cloth each year in 400 styles. 600 tons of coal per year feed the boilers, heaters, and gas house. The towers contain water tanks for firefighting. And “the beautiful water power of a 37-foot fall never fails.”
“This mill is ably officered by its calm, impurturable (sic), self-poised and far-sighted proprietor J.J. Joslin, and the efficient superintendent J.E. Pinkham, a courtly gentleman of the old school…and by its active and polite clerk, J. Whitman Joslin, a nephew of the proprietor. John Jay Joslin (1834-1890) was listed in the 1880 US census as a wool dealer, so he knew that part of the job, at least. Before that, J.J., who grew up in Pittstown, the son of Whitman and Sarah Joslin, farmers, was himself always listed in the census as a farmer. When J.J. died in 1890, his lengthy will begins with leaving $75,000 to his wife, and goes on to list real estate locally and in the western states, so he was definitely an experienced and successful businessman.

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James E. Pinkham

James Everett Pinkham (1817-1903) had had the job of Superintendent under the previous management. He was born in York, Maine and got his experience working in mills there. The 1850 US Census found him in Saco, Maine, with wife Sarah. By the 1865 Massachusetts census, they were in Salem, where James was a manufacturer of wool. Sylvester reports that he moved here the next year. He and Sarah had two sons and two daughters. The 1870 US Census found James listed as the superintendent of the woolen mill, son Edward a bookkeeper there, and son Herbert, just 18, an overseer. Herbert and Edward went briefly to Abilene, Kansas, where they were grocers. They moved back to go into business in Schaghticoke, but Herbert died of typhoid in fall 1881, leaving a widow and two children. The 1900 US Census showed James, now a widower, plus son Edward, daughter-in-law Alice and her two children as a household. Edward became the local insurance man. James was mentioned in the lawsuits surrounding the bankruptcy of the mill and the Merchants and Mechanics Bank in 1878, but apparently lasted out all of it. When the law suits around the closing of the mill came to an end after several appeals, around 1888, I think James ended up being held responsible for about $1,800 of the remaining debt, owed to the receiver. (Troy Times Feb.24, 1888)
There is a lot more to the story of the Schaghticoke Woolen Mill, which I will postpone until later. One thing that the newspaper articles about the financial problems of the mill does not include is the effect of it all on the workers. There were many families in the village who depended on the mill for their daily bread, literally, and the off-and-on openings and closings of the mill must have made huge differences in their income from month to month. For example, the 1870 US Census listed five daughters of the widowed Elizabeth Glennon as weavers at the mill. Five younger children lived at home and attended school. The family would have no income without the woolen mill. Many of the families were immigrants, clearly going where the work was.
One more mill in 1870 Schaghticoke was S. A. Spicer & Co., which made bagging or “gunney cloth” and cordage in the village. It was run by T. C. and Sydney Spicer and G.P. Mealy, with an office of Vail Avenue in Troy. The mill was the farthest south in the village, where the Agway mill is today. This factory is not mentioned in the 1880 “History of Rensselaer County,” and none of the owners lived locally. I believe it was a short-lived enterprise. Theron C. Spicer was born in Pittstown in 1820, the son of a farmer. He and his brother went into the lumber business in Troy, and by 1870 Theron had essentially retired from that business and invested in this factory to make bags and cordage of jute. This is an interesting choice as jute had to be imported, whereas using linen would have allowed at least some use of local flax. Sydney was listed in the 1870 US Census as “gunney cloth manufacturer.” I think the real operator of the mill was George P. Mealey, 41, who lived in Lansingburgh in the 1870 US Census and was also listed as “gunney cloth manufacturer.” By the 1880 US Census, he was a worker in the railroad yard and Sydney was listed as a cotton manufacturer.

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Schaghticoke Powder Mill From Sylvester 1880

The other major industry in town was a very old one, the Powder Mill, which had been operating since about 1812. The keg factory of the mill was still on the original factory site, on the Tomhannock Creek, near its junction with Route 40, but the rest of the mill was on the south side of the Hoosic River, across from the village of Schaghticoke, and mostly accessible from the village of Valley Falls, though still in the town of Schaghticoke. The owners and managers of the mill now mostly lived in Valley Falls, rather than just south of the Hoosic River on Route 40, where they had been before. President William Bliss was the exception. He and his wife lived in the third house south of the Catholic Church, now Transfiguration North.
The 1870 US Census reported that the powder company had invested $80,000 in its real estate and equipment, had four water wheels which generated 226 horsepower, and made 767,275 pounds of gunpowder worth $92,073 in 1869. This contrasts with over a million pounds made in 1865, the last year of the Civil War. As I have written before, the mill produced ¼ of the black powder for the Union Army during the war. The mill continued to grow, however, and was producing above its Civil War level by 1875. The business had seventeen employees, who made an average of over $1000 per year. Employees of the Pickett and Son Paper Mill made about $450. Powder making was dangerous and its workers were paid accordingly.
The mill had been founded by local men, the Masters brothers, and then owned by men who may have come from outside, but who settled here to run the operation they owned. The current President, William P. Bliss was an example. He had worked for the mill since 1837 and been President since 1868. But according to “Peril in the Powder Mills” by Dave McMahon and Anne Kelly Lane, in 1871 Laflin & Rand Powder Company became the largest shareholder in the Schaghticoke Powder Company. Presumably William Bliss and his Superintendent, Chauncey Olds, would have managed day-to-day operations, but Laflin & Rand would have had overall control. While the mills did a huge business in volume, it employed relatively few men. The community was certainly very aware of its presence- thanks to periodic explosions- but it wouldn’t have had the same economic impact as a mill with hundreds of employees.
In 1870 and 1873, the wheel mill of the Powder Company exploded, with no casualties, but on August 31, 1874, it exploded again, killing George Smith and James McGowan. I think that George had recently changed from a relatively safer job in the woolen mill, but James was the son and grandson of powder makers. He was 29, George 24. Another explosion on February 13, 1875 killed Horace (Maurice) Porter and Arthur (James) Rogers. Horace was 47 years old, and left a wife and son. Arthur was 55, and left a wife and at least six children. I have written about the earlier history of the mill elsewhere, and will go into more detail about it in a separate article.

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Grant Fan and Cradle Mill from Sylvester 1880

Another continuing business was the Grant Fan Mill and Grain Cradle Factory in Grant Hollow, just east of route 40 south of current Melrose. This was founded in 1836 by Isaac T. Grant, who with partner Daniel Viall, patented the tools they sold. Isaac died in 1868, but the mill carried on, adding J.P. Leavens and E.B. Banker to the ownership. I have written about Isaac and the factory elsewhere. It also housed a general store and post office. As of the 1870 US Census, the mill employed twelve men and two boys and made $230 of fan mills and $6123 of grain cradles, uniquely using both steam and water power. The 1880 US Census added that the mill worked eight months full time and 4 months part-time. Water power depends on an adequate, unfrozen supply of water, hence the use of steam. The census recorded that the water wheel used was of the turbine type.
Still another factory, the WW Bryan Grain Cradle Factory, located on the Hudson River south of present-day Hemstreet Park, made $1890 of fan mills, $600 of cradles, $600 of wagons, $360 of harrows with its five employees in 1870. This factory had been in business since at least 1855. The NY census for that year recorded that William Bryan and his brother Amos employed ten men to make 12,000 grain cradles. As of the 1880 US Census, there were eight employees. This census records that the mill used an overshot water wheel on a stream that emptied into the Hudson, and that it had operated all year. I wrote about the Bryans earlier in this piece.
The bottom line is that in 1870 the town of Schaghticoke seems to have been prosperous. There was a hiatus after the woolen mill failed in 1878, but new ownership restored that business shortly after. The result was that more and more amenities were available locally. I have written about many of them earlier in the article. Most of these businesses were in the village of Hart’s Falls, with a couple in Schaghticoke Hill and Melrose. There were blacksmiths located all over town, at least 16 in all. Conspicuous by its absence is a bank. The closest one was in Troy. The Rensselaer County Historical Society has many letters written by local manufacturer Amos Briggs to his business partner Betsey Hart in Troy in the 1850’s. Most of them were stating how much cash he needed to pay the workers and acknowledging the receipt of that cash, transported by a courier from a bank in Troy either by road or railroad. By my calculations, the total town population in 1870 was about 3,100- this is without the portion south of Grant Hollow, that is today’s Speigletown and Pleasantdale. This is about 100 less than in 1850- the only statistic that makes me wonder about the town’s relative prosperity. 570 people, or 18% of the population, was foreign born. 70% of that number were born in Ireland, and there was an average of 5.4 people per household. The village of Schaghticoke had 1120 people, about 40% under 16. Of that number, 148 were in school and 100 were working. One 6-year-old child was working in a mill.

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Schaghticoke in 1840

 

 

I have been blogging about the history of Schaghticoke  since July 2011, mostly chronologically, and ,with some detours, have reached about 1840. At that point, we can see elements of our modern town, together with holdovers from its colonial past. The town had a population of 3,400, not that different from now, as the town was smaller physically. The southern border of the town was the Deep Kill, which crosses route 40 at Grant’s Hollow. The population skewed young, with 1315 people under 21 and only 129 over 60. 2% of the population, or 76 people were free blacks. 28 of them lived in fifteen families, with the rest living one or two apiece as servants in various white families. I will write about the black families later.

The town government of 1840 was similar in some ways to that of today, with a supervisor, town clerk, and town justices. But there were no town councilmen. There were a couple of election inspectors, four assessors, and a commissioner of highways, similar to today, but  there were 32 highway overseers, as men were in charge of maintenance of the road abutting their land. The town also had a couple of poundmasters, as one of the problems in town was animals getting loose and harming crops. Early town laws mandated when cattle could be “free commoners,” in other words, run free. In 1842, the law read that hogs could never be free commoners, but cattle were from May 15 to October 15. The town also had its own sealer of weights and measures and overseer of the poor, both functions done by state and county governments now. There was only one town meeting per year, versus monthly meetings and other special meetings now.

The town also had its own police force, the officers called “constables.” These men were ordinary citizens appointed to fill the positions yearly. In 1844 there were five constables. Town records through the 1840’s show various citizens applying to make new roads. The same thing happens now with a new development, but just less frequently.   There already was a lot of the road system that exists now, though the roads were dirt or plank, the main road, route 40, a toll road. The bridges over the Hoosic River, at Valley Falls and Schaghticoke, and the Hudson, at Stillwater, were privately-owned toll bridges. There was a ferry across the river at Hemstreet Park.  People traveled by horse, horse and wagon, and on foot for private transportation. Public transportation was by steamboat or canal boat on the rivers and canals, by stagecoach from town to town. Railroads had begun to be built, but hadn’t reached our town yet.

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current photo of the Melrose School on Mineral Springs Road

The town was divided into fifteen school districts, each with a one-room schoolhouse, with a total of 840 students.  Unlike today, the town oversaw the schools, providing part of the funding, but each district had a local school superintendent. There was no public education beyond about 8th grade available in town. A few children of wealthier families were sent to private schools in Troy, Greenwich, Fort Edward,  and elsewhere, and fewer went on to college. The census states that only six people were illiterate. I wonder what the definition of illiterate was. I feel that number is definitely less than the reality, just from the wills and documents of the period I have read where people were unable to sign their names, using just an X.

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Grain cradle of the kind patented by Isaac Grant and Daniel Viall

As today, there was just one village, then called Schaghticoke Point, grown up around the bustling mills in the gorge of the Hoosic River. There was a small settlement in Grant’s Hollow, where Isaac Grant had an agricultural machinery factory and store. It had a school house, church, and post office. There was another settlement at Schaghticoke Hill, on route 40 just south of where the Tomhannock Creek crosses. It grew up because of the grist, textile, gun powder, and keg mills on the stream, and had a school, church, blacksmith shop, and at least one small store. Where we might have auto repair shops, there were blacksmiths, who shoed horses and repaired wagons and other items made of iron. There were a number of inns, some more like bars, others more like hotels. Sometimes a home would have one room that would be a general store or a tavern. Residents of Schaghticoke had some choice of churches in 1840: Dutch Reformed, Presbyterian, Methodist, or Lutheran. The Catholic Church was founded in 1841. Outside the hamlets, the land was divided into farms, large and small. The farms were divided and bounded by all kinds of fences: stone, rail, board, with gates of all sorts.

In the 1840 federal census, 491 people worked in agriculture, 454 in manufacture and trade, and 16 in commerce. Some of those in manufacture and trade were women, but this census lists only the names of the heads of household and numbers of people in the occupations, so it is possible to tell only by inference. For example, if three people in a family worked in manufacture and there were only two males, one of the females must have been working in a mill. The same would be true for female farmers, of course.

I had always thought about 19th century Schaghticoke as an agricultural community with a little industry, but this even division of occupations proves that wasn’t so.  I have written before about the industrial revolution in Schaghticoke. Besides the mills listed in Grant’s Hollow and Schaghticoke Hill, there were textile, saw, and grist mills in the gorge of the Hoosic River at Schaghticoke, and at the falls between Schaghticoke and Valley Falls. There were also seasonal flax processing, saw, cider, and grist mills on the Tomhannock Creek and other small streams throughout the town.

The census also listed nine “learned professors and engineers” in town, and in a connection to the past, five Revolutionary War veterans. I thought it might be interesting to learn a little about those folks. I’ll begin with the Revolutionary War vets.  They were Peter Ackart, 84; Elisha Phelps, 82; Nathaniel Robinson, 82; John L. VanAntwerp, 80; and John Welch, 77.   By the way, there were only six men over 80 in the whole town, and four of them were Rev War vets.

All I can find out about John Welch is that he was the head of a household, probably including his wife, plus 1 male aged 20-29, one female aged 10-14, and three females aged 15-19. They young people are young enough to be grandchildren rather than children. As the household includes four people working in manufacturing and trade, this means that at least two of those people were women, if John was still working, if not, then three.

 

I also know very little about Elisha Phelps. His wife was Clarissa Phelps. She was a sister of Dr. Ezekiel Baker, the prominent local doctor until his death in 1836. According to Ezekiel’s probate file, they had lived in Cambridge. By the 1840 census, Clarissa had died, and Elisha was living with Freeman Baker and his family. I am not sure how Freeman was related to the many other Bakers in town, but I don’t think Elisha and Clarissa had any children, so he was probably a nephew or great-nephew. The family included 1 male under 5, 1 26-29, 1 30-39, Elisha, and 1 female under 5, two from 5-9, and 1 from 20-29. Two people worked in agriculture, probably Freeman and the other young man. There is an Elisha Phelps in the pension roll for NY for 1833, but I have not found his pension file online.

Nathaniel Robinson, 82, lived in town with just his wife, Susanna Hamblin, as of that 1840 census. However, his son Samuel, born in 1809 here in Schaghticoke, lived next door, with a large family, so at least the old people had some support.  According to his pension application, Nathaniel was born in Peekskill in 1759 and enlisted there in 1777   as a member of a Connecticut regiment of the line.  This means he was in the regular Army rather than the militia. He was a full-time soldier, while militia men were only called out as needed.  His commanding General was Anthony Wayne. Nathaniel was in the battles of Germantown, Monmouth, and Stoney Point, serving for three years. He was wounded in the leg at the battle of Monmouth, and apparently was lame for life.

I first find Nathaniel in the census for Schaghticoke in 1810, though by the evidence of Samuel’s birth in 1809, he had arrived a bit earlier. Ancestry.com family trees indicate Samuel was the youngest son of a large family. By 1819, at age 61, Nathaniel applied for a pension. He was fortunate to have the help of local resident and first judge of the county Josiah Masters. Masters added a note to the application saying, “I am personally acquainted with Nathaniel Robinson and he is very poor and in want of assistance from his country. Indeed both his revolutionary service and poverty is (sic) a matter of common notoriety in this part of the country.”  Nathaniel was awarded $8 per month, about $150 per month today. At the time, his two youngest children lived with him and wife Susan. They were Sally, aged 15 and Samuel, aged 10.

As part of the pension application, Nathaniel submitted an inventory of his possessions. He didn’t have to include his bedding and clothes as they were considered essential. He had no real estate, but had vegetables in a hired garden worth $10. He had a 12-year-old cow worth $15, three pigs worth $6, four chickens worth 50 cents, one axe, one hoe, two pails, one iron kettle, four knives, three iron spoons, one pot and a tea kettle, one basin, three bowls, two jugs, one bottle, one tumbler, one churn, one griddle, three cups and saucers, one small spinning wheel, one loom, two shuttles, one broom, two baskets, one shovel and tongs, four plates, one spider, and one iron crane. A spider is a frying pan with legs, for use over an open fire by placing it on a crane. The total value was about $50, and Nathaniel owed about $60.  The Robinsons must have led a very basic existence indeed.

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perhaps Mrs Robinson made a bit of money spinning yarn.

Nathaniel died in 1843, wife Susanna the following year. They are buried in the Brookins Cemetery, on the west side of Route 40 in the Melrose part of town. I am sure they lived in that part of town. Three wives of Samuel Robinson are buried there as well. Samuel lived on in the area until his death in 1891. He is buried in Elmwood Cemetery.

The last two Revolutionary War veterans in the 1840 census had actually been members of the local militia, the 14th Albany County. Sylvester’s “History of Rensselaer County,” published in 1880, records Peter Ackart as one of the few Revolutionary War veterans remembered by residents to that day. I find this ironic, as I have been able to find out so little about him in the public record. He was definitely born here, probably the son of another Peter Ackart. I feel he was the Peter Ackart, Jr., who was born in 1767.  He was a very young soldier, and served with his father in the 14th Albany County Militia. I have found him in the local census from 1790 until his death. As of 1803, he had real estate worth $948 and a personal estate of $157. He was a farmer, and probably lived in the area just to the north of Stillwater Bridge Road, where several Ackart families lived in the 1850’s.

This Peter married Maria Benway, a local girl, born in 1789. Their first child, David, was born in 1807. The couple went on to have seven children in total baptized at the Schaghticoke Dutch Reformed Church, the last in 1826. At least two died young. Peter died in 1845. His tombstone is in Elmwood Cemetery. He must have been buried elsewhere first and reinterred as the cemetery opened in 1863. The 1855 census lists the families of three of his sons: David, Jacob, and John, who all lived next door to each other. Peter’s widow Maria, then 66, lived with Jacob and his family. She died in 1866 and is also in Elmwood Cemetery. So this wife of a Revolutionary War veteran survived through the Civil War. No wonder locals remembered her husband Peter as a vet of the earlier war when Sylvester wrote his history.

John Lewis VanAntwerp, 80, was the final Revolutionary War veteran listed in the 1840 census. He was also listed in Sylvester’s “History” as a known veteran. He lived with one of his sons, Peter Yates VanAntwerp.   John was born in Albany in 1760, but moved to Schaghticoke by age four. He enlisted in the local militia regiment in March, 1776, another very young soldier. He served off and on until 1780, rising in the ranks as Ensign, Corporal, and Sergeant, and according to one record, to Lieutenant. When the war started, the Colonel of the 14th Albany was John Knickerbacker, prominent local man. In 1778 John VanAntwerp married Catlyna Yates, daughter of Peter Yates, in Albany. Peter and his family had moved recently to Schaghticoke, and he became the Colonel of the 14th after John was wounded at the battle of Saratoga at the end of 1778. So John L. VanAntwerp must have been quite a guy, becoming an officer and marrying the daughter of the new Colonel before the age of 20.

In his pension application, John described his Revolutionary War service. He served until 1780, “employed in watching and pursuing hostile Indians at Schaghticoke and Stillwater.” He also marched to Lake George, Fort Edward, Fort Ann, and Whitehall. About October 1, 1777, he was part of a company attached and volunteered to General Gates, in Camp at Stillwater. He was there until the surrender of Burgoyne. In 1778 he guarded different forts on the northern frontier. At one point he marched to Fort Ticonderoga to look at British shipping. This matches what I have read of the experiences of quite a few other local men. They served a month to six weeks each year of the war, as needed.

John and Catlyna had a number of children. Five were baptized in the Schaghticoke Dutch Reformed Church, starting with Alida and ending with Peter Yates in 1794. Catlyna’s father, Peter Yates, the Colonel, died in 1808. He was a wealthy man with a number of children. Catlyna received household items from his estate, plus a silver table spoon, a silver ½ pint cup, a mare, a cow, and a bushel of salt. She also received 200 acres of land in Montgomery County, and 100 pounds.  Unfortunately John does not appear in the early New York State assessment rolls, from 1799-1804. I would love to know if he used his wife’s inheritance well. What happened to the property in Montgomery County?   I feel the family lived in the area north of Stillwater Bridge Road, near the Ackarts. John was a farmer. Catlyna died in 1810, not long after her father, leaving John as a widower with several teenage children at home.

When John finally applied for a pension, in 1832, he seemed to have to go to very great lengths to prove he had been a veteran. This would seem ironic for the son-in-law of the Colonel of the Regiment. Herman Knickerbacker, son of John, former Congressman, and judge of the county, testified on his behalf, along with the pastor of the Dutch Reformed Church, Peter Ackart, and Wynant Vandenbergh, who with his father tended the ferry over the Hudson River at Stillwater during the war. Wynant said he had seen John take the ferry on many occasions while on duty during the Revolution. Despite all this support, John was dropped from the pension rolls for a couple of years.  Job Pierson, another local former Congressman and judge, helped John re-apply and obtain his pension again, in 1837, at which point he was owed $320. When John died in 1848, he left two sons, Peter and John, and two daughters, Sarah and Maria. John and Maria died by 1851, but Peter and Sarah continued to receive their father’s pension. As of the 1855 census, Peter, then 61, was a farmer with wife Mariah and five daughters. He and Sarah both died in 1860. He is buried in Elmwood Cemetery.

So the 1840 census lets us know quite a lot about most of the oldest residents in town. We find that they were well-known in the community. The most prominent residents were ready to speak up for them and the veracity of their life stories. One of them was a destitute old man, despite living near his son, but the others were at least able to live comfortably, and all had family nearby, if they didn’t live with them.

The 1840 census also identifies eight men who were “learned professors, and engineers.”  I feel this is a euphemism for people with a college education or the equivalent. The fact of singling out these men, for they are all men, from those working in agriculture and manufacturing and trades, the other two categories, indicates how rare this was in the U.S. in 1840. At least in Schaghticoke, there were no engineers. There were three doctors, three pastors, and two lawyers. At least one lawyer, Thomas Ripley, was not included in the list- he was assigned no occupation in the census, so perhaps there was an error there. Thomas was a graduate of R.P.I. who became a U.S. Congressman a few years later. He certainly was a “learned professor.”

I will begin with the three doctors:  Ezekiel Baker, Zachariah Lyon, and Simon Newcomb.  Simon Newcomb was born in Nine Partners, near Poughkeepsie, in 1779. He had moved to Pittstown by 1800 with his parents and family.  He married Sarah Follett in 1802. They had children William, Nahum, Nomina, Wesley, David, Simon, and Sally, who died as an infant. Sarah died in 1820 and he married Hannah Stover in 1821. They had four daughters:  Sarah, Elizabeth, and twins Louisa and Mary. According to “The Genealogy of the Newcomb Family”, written in 1874, Simon lived in “upper Schaghticoke” for about eleven years. The 1840 census captured him in our town during that time, but he was back in Pittstown by 1850. That census found Samuel (sic), 70, with real estate of $3500; Hannah, 57; Eliza, 24; Louisa and Mary, 20. By 1860 they had moved to the Speigletown area, part of the town of Lansingburgh at the time. Simon made it into the 1870 census, aged 91. He had real estate worth $5000, and a personal estate of $11,500. His daughters Elizabeth and Mary lived with him. He died later that year and is buried in Tomhannock. The genealogy notes that he was healthy in body and mind right up to his death.  Several of his children lived locally, and his son Wesley also became a doctor. He was a founder of Albany Medical College and an internationally known conchologist (expert on mollusks.)

simonnewcomb

Simon Newcomb

The family genealogy describes Simon in glowing terms. As I have found with many prominent men of the era, he was active in all aspects of the life of his community: financial, political, and religious, as well as professional, as a doctor. He began his career as a teacher in the local school in Millertown at age seventeen. He joined the Methodist Church about the same time. Unlike the other doctors in the census, he studied medicine with several local doctors, rather than going to college. He apprenticed a year each with Ezekiel Baker, the uncle of the Ezekiel Baker in the 1840 census, David Doolittle, Nehemiah King, and John Hurlburt. He volunteered with the local regiment for the war of 1812, though the men  never got to fight. In addition to being a doctor, he was the first postmaster at Johnsonville, a justice of the peace for 27 years, the town supervisor in Pittstown for three years, U.S. assessor for two years, plus town clerk, commissioner of deeds, and overseer of the poor. He was described as being a stern man of firm decision, great integrity, and unpretentious dignity.

Zachariah Lyon was the second doctor in the 1840 census. He is mentioned in several 19th century histories of Rensselaer County as an early doctor in town- but without elaboration. I have pieced together his biography from census and a couple of newspaper articles. He first appears in the local census in 1830, with a family of five, including two immigrants.  Presumably the count included him, his wife, Sarah Lavinia, daughter Anna, and perhaps two servants. The 1855 census indicates he and Sarah had been in town for 27 years, which would put their arrival in 1828. That census lists Zachariah as 62 years old, born in Connecticut. Sarah, 65, was born in Vermont, as was daughter Anna, 40. She was born in Sunderland, Vermont, a small town in southwest Vermont.  This would indicate that the Lyons moved here from Vermont when Zachariah was 34, Sarah 35, and Anna 13.   All of the other censuses indicate Zachariah was born in Massachusetts.  Presumably Zachariah came to town as an experienced physician, having practiced in Vermont. Zachariah had arrived at a good time, businesswise, as the established doctor, Ezekiel Baker, was elderly, and died in 1836. In 1837, he and Baker’s nephew, another Ezekiel and doctor, were the two doctors called to examine murder victim Herman Groesbeck, to determine the cause of death, an indication that he was firmly established here.

As with Simon Newcomb, Zachariah was involved in politics. I found him as a delegate to the local Whig conventions in the 1840’s. He was the town supervisor of Schaghticoke in 1854. He was also involved with his church, as one of the founding vestrymen of the local Episcopal Church in 1846. During the Civil War, the government imposed new taxes, and these showed that Zachariah paid 12 cents in tax for four pieces of silver- presumably silverware- plus $1 each for two one-horse carriages. He paid on income of $235 in 1864. To me this indicates a comfortable but not wealthy family. The census consistently shows one household servant. At least one carriage would be necessary for his job as a doctor.

Daughter Anna appears in the census with her parents in all but one census. Sometime between 1855 and 1860, she married Embree Maxwell. He was a farmer from Saratoga County, just a couple of years older than her father. He died in 1863 and is buried near the Quaker Meeting House in the town of Saratoga, according to an article in “The Saratogian” in 1940. Anna and Embree had a child, Frank, probably about the time his father died. The 1865 census found Anna back with her parents, with Frank, aged 1 8/12.

The family was together for the last time in the 1870 census, which listed Zachariah as 78, with an estate worth $18,000, still working as a physician. Sarah was 80, Anna, 52, and Frank 6. Sarah died in 1872, and Zachariah in 1873. This left daughter Anna as his only heir. She received his house and lot plus the income from the rent of a brick store, sheds, and a yard next to his home. This indicates he had lived in the village of Schaghticoke. The Lyons are buried in Elmwood Cemetery. Frank died at age 13, and Anna died in 1892 of tuberculosis. Both are in Elmwood as well. I would love to find out where Zachariah was born, where he was educated, how they ended up in Schaghticoke, how the couple felt when their only daughter married an elderly Quaker farmer, how they felt when they finally had a grandchild.

The third doctor in the 1840 census was Ezekiel Baker. Researching him has caused me all kinds of frustration. At this point, I think that there were three men by that name in Schaghticoke in the first 35 years of the 19th century. The eldest Ezekiel was been born about 1730 in Connecticut. An ancestry.com researcher says he was here as of the 1790 census, with a family of 2 males over 16 and 3 females over 16, but moved on and died in Herkimer County in 1800. His son Ezekiel was born in 1761, and travelled with the family to Schaghticoke, but stayed on, as did his son Truman. I don’t have any way independently of that researcher to be sure of that father and son. But for sure, a man named Ezekiel Baker was in the 1790 census, and then in  the 1800 census, Ezekiel shows up with a family of one male from 10-16, 2 from 17-26, one from 27-44, one female under 10, 1 from 17-26, and one from 27-44. I’m not sure who all of those people were, as this Ezekiel and his wife Rhoda had no children. Ezekiel Baker was also one of the first school commissioners of the town, before 1800, and one of the organizers of the Homer Masonic Lodge in 1799.

The Ezekiel Baker of the 1800 census was a doctor. As of the 1803 NYS assessment, he had real estate of $1950 and a personal estate of $257. That same year, he was one of the founders of the Schaghticoke Presbyterian Church and an original trustee. This church was founded by the incoming New Englanders to town, and was THE church of the local mill owners, movers and shakers. When the church was reorganized in 1820, Ezekiel was still a trustee. He purchased pew 18 for $33. Pew purchase and rent was the way the church was financed.

Ezekiel continued to be a pillar of our community until his death in 1836. The more I look at early deeds for the town, the more land I see that he owned. For example, the 170 acres of the current Howard Gifford farm was sold by Ezekiel to Josiah Masters before 1815.Of course he continued to appear in the census. Interestingly, in 1810 and 1820, his family included one female slave. I would love to know why Ezekiel and his wife purchased a young black girl (she was from 18-26 in the 1820 census). She remained with the couple in the 1830 census, though by then, of course, she was free.

The probate file of Ezekiel listed his many heirs: his brothers Lyman, Truman, and sisters and their many children. The most important one for us is Ezekiel, a son of his brother Truman. Ezekiel stayed on in Schaghticoke. I’m sure that to avoid confusion, he was always known as Ezekiel 2nd. to differentiate him from his uncle. He was the doctor of the 1840 census. Incidentally, that census entry includes one free black woman of the age to be the same who had been his uncle’s slave.

Ezekiel Baker 2nd was born in 1795 in Pittstown. He attended Williams College from 1810-1814, and was listed as M.D. in the class of 1810, though apparently he did not graduate. Perhaps he mentored with his uncle Ezekiel to become a doctor as did Simon Newcomb, another of the 1840 census doctors. According to Anderson’s “History of Rensselaer County,” he was a local doctor for fifty-one years.

Ezekiel picked up right where his uncle left off, becoming a pillar of the Presbyterian Church. He was secretary of the meeting when it reorganized in 1831, was a clerk of the trustees for many years, and first president of the Sunday School. Ezekiel was also involved in local politics, attending Whig conventions in the county. He ran for state assembly and county coroner in the 1840’s and 1850. Anderson states that he was a strong abolitionist, and that his home was a stop on the underground  railroad in the 1850’s.  And he got involved in business matters as well.  Apparently he was one of a group of investors who held the mortgage on extensive mill properties of Ephraim Congdon on the Hoosic River. Ephraim defaulted in 1834, and the investors sold the property at auction.

Ezekiel was married to Harriet Bryon Bryan of Schaghticoke. They had six sons. David Bryon Baker, born in 1821, attended both Union and William Colleges. He was a doctor, but also town clerk of Schaghticoke as a young man, in 1843-1844. I’m sure he was tapped to be his father’s successor as town physician, but he died in 1847. He was married to Jenette C., and they had two small children. One of them, Calot, lived with his grandparents for a number of years.

The Baker’s second son, Charles, was born in 1823. Charles became a general merchant, and worked for local mill owner Amos Briggs. He was in business in Schaghticoke until his death in 1896. Third son Robert was born and died in 1825. The fourth son, Lorenzo Dow, was born in 1826. Though he became a merchant like brother Charles, he was also a tailor and concentrated on selling clothing. He must have been a bit more outgoing than Charles, or maybe more successful, as he rated a biography in Anderson’s “History of Rensselaer County.” Thus I know that he attended both the Greenwich, NY, and Manchester, Vt. Seminaries- the equivalent of high school- and then went on to work in Troy for a few years. Lorenzo returned home to become a clothing merchant and tailor in the village of Schaghticoke for the rest of his life.  He was also the town clerk in 1853-54, and held various positions in the government of the new village of Hart’s Falls (Schaghticoke) after 1867, as did brother Charles. Lorenzo was very successful, building the Baker Opera House about 1875. It had retail spaces on the first floor- including his own and his brother’s- and a theater upstairs, and was located where Sammy Cohen’s is today. Unfortunately it burned in a huge fire in 1880. Lorenzo survived until 1904.

Fifth son William Henry was born in 1829. He was listed in the 1850 census for Schaghticoke with his parents, and brothers Lorenzo, and John as a merchant, age 21. By the 1855 census he was gone, probably to Racine, Wisconsin, where he was listed in the 1860 census as a bookkeeper, with wife Mary and two small sons. He died before 1866, as he was listed in his father’s will as deceased.

Youngest son, John Ezekiel, was born in 1831. Though John studied medicine at Williams College, he also attended Union Theological Seminary in 1858 and became a Presbyterian Minister. I wonder if there was pressure for John Ezekiel to become a doctor as his oldest brother David Bryan had died. If so, John evidently persisted in the career for which he felt called.  He moved to Rochester, where he was a minister and prominent member of the community, living until 1894.

Father Ezekiel lived until 1866, long enough to see the death of two of his sons, and the success of the rest. Widow Harriet survived until 1872. All of the Schaghticoke Bakers are buried in Elmwood Cemetery.

Returning to the 1840 census, it also included three ministers in the list of “learned professors and engineers.” They were Hugh M. Boyd, Hawley Ransom, and J. H. Noble. I will begin with Hawley Ransom, as I know the least about him. He was born in Vermont in 1809. According to Sylvester’s “History of Rensselaer County,” he was an original member of the Troy Conference of Methodist Ministers in 1834, at which point he was serving at Schaghticoke Hill. That is the little community on Route 40 just south of where it is crossed by the Tomhannock Creek.  Hawley served as the justice of the peace in the town of Schaghticoke in 1843.He and wife Lucy moved to Northumberland in Saratoga  He must have felt quite a tie to the place, as when his first wife, Lucy, died in 1858, he had her buried in the little cemetery next to the church, even though he had moved to Northumberland in Saratoga County. The couple had stayed in Schaghticoke for a long time- at least from 1834 to 1855, as the 1855 census for Northumberland states that Hawley and Lucy had lived there for just two months. Oddly, Hawley, now 50, was listed as a shoemaker. Wife Lucy was also 50 and their two daughters, Margaret, 24, and Drucilla, 15, lived with them.

By the 1860 census for Northumberland, Lucy had died, and Hawley had remarried Catherine Strong. Hawley was again listed as a clergyman. He and Catherine, 35, lived with Abby, 20- presumably Drucilla called by a different name, and Harriet Strong, 40. She was Catherine’s sister, a milliner. The 1865 census shows the birth of a daughter, Josephine, to the couple, then 11 months old. This census lists Hawley as both farmer and minister- and this was probably the case in the censuses where he was listed as a shoemaker and farmer alone. Hawley died in 1873 and is buried in the Reynold’s Corners Cemetery in Moreau. Wife Catherine died in 1896 and is there as well.

Hugh M. Boyd was probably born in Schenectady in 1795. He graduated from Union College in 1813. He is listed in a book of the graduates of Union as a clergyman from Schenectady. As would befit a man from very Dutch-oriented Schenectady, Hugh was a Dutch Reformed minister. I don’t know where he was from 1813 to 1830, but I think he was in Saratoga as of 1830, based only on a census listing.  Hugh was the pastor at the Schaghticoke Dutch Reformed Church from 1835-1841. During that time he and his wife Mary Dorr had two daughters. Margaret was baptized in 1835 and Martha was born in 1836 and baptized April 30, 1837. This was a time when the church, the oldest and once the largest congregation in town, was shrinking.  He did marry 23 couples during that time, including one black couple, and baptized 25 children. After he left in 1841, it was seven years until another baptism was recorded. I don’t know where Hugh went after he left Schaghticoke, but he died in 1847 at age 52 and is buried in Vale Cemetery in Schenectady.

The third minister in the 1840 census is Reverend Dr. Jonathan Harris Noble, known in the records as “J.H.”  He was the minister at the Schaghticoke Presbyterian Church from 1837-1869. He was born in Vermont in 1804, the son of Obadiah, whom I think was also a minister. Jonathan was a graduate of Williams College in 1826 and the Princeton Theological Seminary in 1829. I’m not sure where J.H. was in the years before he came to Schaghticoke, though his interment record states he was in Tinmouth, Vermont at some point,  but he arrived here as an experienced minister. This was good for the church, as it had been suffering through schism in the previous ten years. J.H. brought stability. Unlike other prominent local men, J.H. stuck to his job, not getting involved in politics. This included participating in the larger Presbyterian synod and the national home and foreign missionary societies. Mrs. Noble participated as well. I found her listed in several publications of the American Tract Society in the 1840’s, for example, which published the pamphlets used by foreign missionaries.

That 1840 census includes J.H., and his wife Octavia, plus one other female aged 30-39, probably her sister Emily, plus one female age 10-14, presumably their daughter Mary Louisa. The 1850 census shows Jonathan, then 46, with his wife Octavia Porter, 43, her sister Emily, 50, and their mother Aurora, 85. I don’t know where Mary Louisa was. She appears in the 1855 census, aged 22. She had joined her father’s church the year before.   Emily and Amanda Porter continued to live with the family.  Johnathan also appeared in the 1855 NYS census as a farmer. He had twenty improved and ten unimproved acres worth $4000. He had grown seven acres of oats, two acres of corn and ten acres of potatoes the preceding year. He had 23 fowl, one cow, and one pig. So he primarily grew what his family needed.  Mary Louisa was also left out of the 1860 census, when J.H. and Octavia lived just with a servant, and in 1865, when the church records indicate she moved to Elizabeth, New Jersey.

Around the same time, in October 1865, the Albany Presbyterian Synod held its meeting in Schaghticoke. This must have been a real feather in J.H.’s cap. Unfortunately, his wife was ill and dying at the time. An article in the Troy “Daily Times” records that J.H. was amazing, being the good host of his fellow ministers while tending to his ill wife. Octavia is buried in Elmwood Cemetery. J.H. remarried, to a woman named Caroline, by November 1866, when she joined the Presbyterian Church.

The minutes of the Presbyterian Church session reveal that Rev. Noble proposed to resign in fall 1868. It took until the following June to find a replacement. This is reflected in the 1870 census for Schaghticoke, when J.H., now 65, and wife Caroline, 45, were living in the inn of Garrett Groesbeck, rather than in the brick manse.  But J.H.  did not retire. He went to Johnsonville by 1871. The Presbyterian Church had begun there in 1856, but I found J.H.’s name in a Presbyterian record of home missions in 1874. I’m not sure why the assignment in Johnsonville would be considered a mission, when it was already established. I did not find the Nobles in the 1880 census, but J.H. was still listed as being in Johnsonville in a newspaper article of 1882.

Sometime later, J.H. and Caroline Noble moved to Perth Amboy, New Jersey, presumably drawn by Mary Louisa living in that state, though there was a Ministers’ Home there, for retired pastors. J.H. and Caroline were living there when he wrote a letter to the local Synod, meeting in April 1896.  J.H. died later that month. He was buried from the Presbyterian Church in Schaghticoke, with seven fellow ministers taking part in the service. The 1900 census found Caroline in the Westminster Home in New Jersey. She died in 1901. Both are buried in Elmwood Cemetery.

Returning to the 1840 census, there were two lawyers among the “learned professors and engineers.  I have already written extensively about one of them, Herman Knickerbacker. He is one of the most famous residents in the history of the town. Unfortunately to me, this is because he was the model for Diedrich Knickerbacker in Washington Irving’s “Knickerbocker’s History of New York.” But he was also one of the first lawyers in town, U.S. Congressman from 1809-1811, Rensselaer County judge, and local businessman and mill owner. Virtually every deed involving Schaghticoke in the first forty or so years of the 19th century has Herman’s name in it somewhere, either as the lawyer handling the deal, a witness, or judge.

The second lawyer in the census was Nelson Moshier. He was born in 1806 in Dutchess County. He married Catherine Tice of Brunswick in 1833 at Gilead Lutheran Church.  He was the Schaghticoke Town Clerk in 1841 and a school commissioner about the same time. I have found Nelson as the lawyer in probate files and wills of the era.  By 1850 the family had moved to pioneer in Michigan. According to a biography on the find-a-grave website, he practiced law there and was a circuit court judge, and the first prosecuting attorney when Isabella County, Michigan was formed.  Nelson died in 1872 and is buried in Isabella County. I would love to talk to Nelson about his motivations for moving West. It was certainly becoming more and more common at the time.

So now I’ve written about some of the more prominent people in town. How about the others? Let me turn to the nine black families.  New York State’s gradual abolition of slavery had ended in 1829.  While there were 343 blacks in Schaghticoke in 1790, by 1820 there were 66 slaves and 30 free blacks, and by 1830 there were just 52 free blacks. The total of 76 in the 1840 census is actually a bit of an uptick. In a few cases, freed slaves stayed on in the families where they had been owned. For example, the elder Dr. Ezekiel Baker had had one female slave in 1820 and had one freed black female in 1830.

The nine black families in the 1840 census amounted to just over a third of the blacks in town. Interestingly, none is listed with an occupation, though they certainly all worked! As you will see, in most cases I was unable to find out much, if anything, about the families. This is partly because they were often illiterate, they were not taxed, and were not active in politics.  They also moved a lot, and lived in poor circumstances. They just weren’t much in the public record. The heads of household of these black families were Thomas Mando, Prince Jackson, Peter Williams, Thomas Robins, Peter Baker, James Hornbeck, James Franklin, Stephen Calvin, and Joseph Winney.

I do know a bit about one of the families.  There is a legend that Thomas Mando, who was listed in the census as over 55, with a female over 55 and one male under 10 in his family, may have been “Thomas Mandolin”, a former slave of the Knickerbacker family. He got his surname because he played the mandolin.  What is true is that he and his wife had also been a family in the 1830 census, right after the final abolition of slavery. At that point they had four children living with them.  It is possible that the young boy in the 1840 census was a grandchild. The couple was still in the 1850 census: Thomas, 83, and wife Hannah, 60. Thomas still listed his occupation as laborer, and they had a black girl named Margaret Fonda, 8, living with them.   One of their sons, also Thomas, and his wife Catherine and family were still in town as well. Their youngest child, Albert, then 4, became a composer and orchestra leader in New York City. I do not know where the elder Thomas Mando and his wife are buried, but the younger Thomas, wife Catherine (Katie), and several children, including Albert, are in the Methodist Cemetery at Schaghticoke Hill.

mando illo (1)

Prince Jackson and his wife were also in both the 1830 and 1840 census. In 1830, he was between 24-36 years old and she, 10-24.  In 1840 they were both listed as between 35-55 years old. In 1830, there was a second black Jackson family, that of Richard, with a family of four, but he was gone by 1840. And Prince and wife were also gone by 1850. Prince is a fairly common name for slaves, as was Jackson, so there were a half dozen men with that name in the New York area in 1850. I don’t think any of them was our Prince. So I will have to leave his story there.

Peter Williams is another black man who also appeared in the 1830 census. At that time, his family consisted of him, age 24-36, his wife, age 10-24, and a son under 10. The 1840 census listing is similar, with one male 24-36, one female 10-24, but this time one female under 10. There are definitely some issues with the accuracy of their ages. The Williams stayed on in town, and the 1850 census lists them as Peter, 45, a laborer born in New York, illiterate; his wife, Diana, just 23, also born in New York; and their son John, 3. This clearly was a second wife for Peter. That census also included Harriet Williams, a black girl aged 16, who worked for the family of Ormon Doty, and Nancy Williams, a black woman aged 27, who worked for the family of John Groesbeck. They could have been daughters of Peter. Nancy was still working for the Groesbecks as of the 1855 census, though her age was then listed as 41. She was born in Rensselaer County.

I did find that Peter and Diana moved to Waterford by 1860. Peter, now 55, and Diana, 28, had a daughter Sarah, 9.  Peter was a laborer, with a personal estate of $15. But I could not find them after that. It seems like a number of children passed in and out of the census listing for the couple. It is so difficult and frustrating to trace these people, handicapped by their race and their illiteracy, when we would love to know the whole story.

Thomas Robins was the last black man who appeared in both the 1830 and 1840 census. In 1830 his family included two males under 10, and one 36-54- that was Thomas- plus one female under 10, one from 10-23, one from 24-35, and one from 36-54. One of the older women was certainly his wife, but there must have been another woman who was neither child nor wife, plus perhaps three children. By the 1840 census, the family was reduced to just Thomas and his wife, both listed as over 55.

There is quite a twist by the 1850 census, when there was a Peter J. Robbins, a black man aged 35, working as a laborer on the Kenyon farm. Peter stayed on in town and served in the Civil War, returning by the 1865 census, when he was now listed as a 55 -year -old laborer, with a wife and young son. Peter could certainly have been one of the sons of Thomas. I cannot find Thomas and his wife for sure elsewhere in the 1850 census, as there are several couples with Thomas Robins as the head of household of the correct age in New York State.

Peter Baker was another black man with a family in the 1840 census, though not in 1830.  He was aged 24-35, and had a wife in the same age range, plus one daughter under 10. I feel this family had left town by 1850 and moved to Lansingburgh. In that census there was a Peter, aged 35, with wife Susan, aged 33, and daughter Mary, aged 14. I could not find them in the 1860 census, but in the 1865 NYS census, they were in the 1st Ward of Troy. Peter was a coachman, who had been married three times. His wife was now Sarah, aged 43, listed as a mulatto, while Peter was black. She was born in Maryland, and this was her second marriage. Interestingly, a 40-year-old  black man named Ebenezer Williams, a barber aged 40, lived with them. Could he have been another son of Peter Williams, our previous subject?? And another black family which had lived in Schaghticoke, the Hornbecks, lived next door. Unfortunately, I can’t find Peter past 1865.

James Holenbeck or Hornbeck, also black, had a family of four in the 1840 census. He was from 24-35 years of age, his wife the same age range, plus one son and one daughter under 10. There are graves in the old Methodist Cemetery at Schaghticoke Hill- the same cemetery where the Mandos are buried- for Emeline, died May 8, 1847 age 7; and Henry, died May 12, 1847, age 18, both children of James and Susan Hornbeck. What a tragedy for the family. I feel that they moved to Troy soon after.  Though I have not been able to find him in the 1850 or 1860 census, a James Hornbeck is in the Troy City Directory from 1857 on, listed as a porter who lived at 38 Fulton Street. The August 20, 1856 issue of the Troy “Daily Times” reported that James Hornbeck assisted the chairman of a “meeting of colored persons” at the Liberty Street Presbyterian Church in Troy. The meeting discussed propositions for blacks to get to right to vote, among other issues, reporting on a larger convention held recently in Seneca Falls.

There is  also a Joseph Hornbeck in both the 1850 and 1855 Schaghticoke censuses. In the former he was a 12-year-old black boy, who lived in the family of Nathan Overocker. In the latter, he was a laborer in the family of William Brown. He could have been a son of James.  As I mentioned above, I did find James Hornbeck and his family living next door to Peter Baker in Troy in the 1865 census. James, 65-years-old, was a laborer. He had a wife, Susan, age 64, born in Rhode Island, who had had eight children. A black couple, Thomas Moore, 26, born in New Jersey, and Rebecca Moore, 27, born in Saratoga, lived with them.

By the 1870 Troy directory, James had died. Mrs. James Hornbeck lived at 119 Church Street. A Joseph Hornbeck lived in Troy as well. This listing for Mrs James is interesting as an obituary in two local newspapers reported the death of Susan Hornbeck in 1864. A post on the webpage of the Lansingburgh Historical Society quotes:  “A centennarian with ten years to spare, died at Lansingburgh yesterday. Susan Hornbeck, better known as “Aunt Susan,” was her name. She had attained the age of one hundred and ten years. The deceased was a colored woman—born a slave in Saugerties [Ulster County], and held by the family of John Brown in Lansingburgh for many years—only being released when New York became a Free State.”Schenectady Daily Evening Star and Times. April 9, 1864: 3 col 2.
Albany Morning Express. April 11, 1864: 3 col 3.

James Franklin and his family also lived in town in 1840. James, aged 24-36, and his wife, aged 24-36, had two daughters, one under 10, one aged from 10-14. He was still here in the 1850 census: James, aged 40, a laborer born in New York, with wife Betsey, aged 28. If the ages are correct, this could be a different wife. What happened to the children? I have been unable to find James after this date.

I have been unable to discover anything more than their listing about two of the black families in the 1840 census. Stephen Calvin, a black man aged 36-55, and his wife, the same age, also lived in Schaghticoke as a family in 1840. The last black family in the 1840 census was that of Joseph Winney. Joseph was from 24-35 years old. He and his wife, the same age, had three small sons, under 10 years of age.

Unfortunately this census doesn’t indicate foreign born citizens, which would have been helpful to fill out this story of life in Schaghticoke in 1840. I know that the population of foreign born increased rapidly during this period, mostly due to an influx of mill workers and of Irish immigrants. There were enough Irish Catholics here for the Albany diocese to begin a church in 1841.

Now that I’ve discussed some of the individual families in town, I’d like to move on to discuss how people lived. Beyond generalities, I will use inventories of their estates from probate files to try to figure that out.  The problem with this method is that inventories can be more or less complete, but I can’t think of a better way.  In 1840 as now, there would be quite a range of prosperity. Earlier in this article, I gave the inventory of Revolutionary War veteran Nathaniel Robinson, whom we would hope was at the poorest end of the range. He owned no land, possessing just a few animals, a few dishes, and a few cooking utensils. Tellingly, his wife had a spinning wheel and a loom. She could process her own wool and make fabric, either for home use or to sell, impossible to know from the information given. The Robinsons certainly lived simply, cooking their food in the now old-fashioned way, over a fire outdoors or in a fireplace, getting water from a well, lighting with a candle or oil or grease lamp. They grew their own food as much as possible, and lived a simple life with no books, pictures on the wall, curtains at the windows, or rugs on the floor.

At the other end of the scale, was Munson Smith, a prominent local businessman and mill owner, who died in 1842. I have written of him before- it’s on my blog at www.schaghticokehistory.wordpress.com. Using the inventory of his estate in his probate file, we can intuit that the Smiths lived in a carpeted home, with curtains at some of the windows and inside shutters on others. A lot of the furniture was mahogany, with matching chairs at the dining table. They had large sets of matching dishes (39 plates in one set!!), with specialized dishes for gravy, custard, fruit, and other foods. While there was some plain glassware, some was cut glass, and they had specialized wine glasses. Some of the silverware had ivory handles, some was silver.

astral lamp

astral lamp

Several bedrooms were furnished with maple, mahogany, and cherry beds, small tables, chairs, and dressers, with a mirror on each wall, and lots of bed linens of different types. This was in the pre-bathroom era, so there were several wash bowl and pitcher sets, for washing in the bedrooms. While there were fireplaces, the rooms were also heated with cast iron stoves, probably set into the fireplaces and using their flues.  There were candles on the mantelpieces, but they also had the latest Astral lamp. There were also several clocks. The inventory lists the kitchen stove, plus pots and pans of brass, tin, and iron.  The kitchen range with a cook top was a relatively recent advance over open hearth cooking. It may have been either coal or wood burning.

Munson’s office was either in or attached to his house. It contained office furniture, plus a bedroom, furnished, and his library of about 60 volumes. This was a substantial library for the time.  Munson’s wearing apparel is not itemized in the inventory, but was valued at $21. This doesn’t seem like much, but considering that the kitchen stove was worth $12, it is quite a lot.

I’ve been trying to find an inventory of a less wealthy person who was not a farmer to contrast with Munson Smith. This is not easy to do. I did find that of Henry Thompson, who died in town in 1845. He left a widow and five children, two under 21. His widow Sarah stated his “goods and chattels” were not worth more than $250.  Henry left one cow and one swine,  and there was some basic  agricultural material,  a scythe, a straw cutter, a potato hook, a plough There was one horse, two wagons, two “cutters”- sleighs, a saddle and harness of different kinds. This would have provided transportation for the family and his business. He also had the tools of a carpenter: a cross cut saw, grindstone, six planes, an adze, chains, a square, five moulding tools, a set of framing chisels, a hammer, a broad axe, a circular saw, a smooth plane and gauge, plus some wood: two sets of boat plans, a lot of birch planks, and another lot of planks. Was he a carpenter who built boats?

Henry’s widow retained a wagon, two stands, a rag carpet, a bureau, a table, six chairs, and a looking glass as her widow’s portion. The rest of the household furniture consisted of just four beds with their bedding, two stoves, cooking utensils not detailed, one table, six chairs, six knives and forks plus other crockery, one spinning wheel, and library and school books. I’m glad to see the books, as the rest of the furnishings seem basic to say the most.

I did find widow Sarah in the 1850 census for Pittstown. She was 47 years old, born in New York, and had real estate worth $600. In her household were her sons Peter, a 20 -year-old carpenter, Isaac, 10, and Bryan, 6, and a Michael Thompson, 43, born in Ireland, who was a laborer- perhaps her brother-in-law. So I think Henry was a carpenter, and probably an Irish immigrant, who died when his youngest child was just one. She had moved, but not far, and had a place to live.

Let’s look at the probate file of John Baucus, who died in 1832 at 59. He was a farmer who lived near the current town hall. He and his family attended the Lutheran Church, and he is buried in the cemetery at the junction of Melrose-Valley Falls Road and North Line Drive.   In the 1830 census for Schaghticoke, John, age 50-59, had a wife the same age plus one son from 10-14, two from 15-19, one from 20-29, and two daughters from 10-14.  The inventory of his estate gives us insight into a prosperous farm of the period. He had nine horses, seven cows, four young cattle, four calves, and a pair of oxen, plus 50 sheep, 15 pigs, 18 hogs, and one boar, 13 geese, and some chickens. At that time, there was a woolen mill in the village of Schaghticoke, a market for the wool.

Turning to farm equipment, John had  five ploughs, a fanning mill,  two ox carts,  three sleighs, an ox sled, three wagons of different kinds, two drags, five pitch forks, two dung forks, four rakes, a patent rake, a stone boat (for moving stones), four hoes, some shovels, and other miscellaneous tools. John also left large quantities of hay, stored in several different barns, 500 bushels of corn, 300 bushels of wheat, “a lot of oats in the barrack,” potatoes “in the hole” and 100 other bushels of potatoes and 15 bushels of buckwheat. A barrack is a temporary barn structure. I feel that potatoes were stored in a hole constructed for that purpose, like a root cellar.

Plowing-hard work 1830

plowing at the Farmers Museum in Cooperstown

John’s widow was allowed to keep items apart from probate that were essential for herself and her “infant children” to live. There were five children in this category. She kept ten of the sheep, one cow and four pigs, plus the only household furnishings included in the inventory. There were kitchen utensils- pots, a brass kettle, a frying pan- plus two stoves, 25 chairs, six tables, and four looking glasses. There were seven beds, 30 blankets, 15 pairs of sheets, and 15 pairs of pillow cases, plus two sets of curtains, two carpets, four other window curtains,  eight table cloths, one stand (small table), a wooden clock,  and a bureau (dresser). This seems like plenty of chairs, mirrors, and bedding, but too little clothes storage, although there were two chests and two cupboards- but they might have been for food or dish storage.

Mrs. Baucus had two sets of dishes, one fine, one every day, two sets of knives and forks, two decanters, six tumblers, and 15 wine glasses. A stove for cooking is not mentioned, though there is a furnace. I am not sure what was meant by that- certainly not what we would think of as a source of central heat. It could have been a stove for heating flat irons.   The only lighting implements on the list are three candle sticks, though there could have been various kinds of oil lamps. There were also a churn and a wash tub. The inclusion of a loom, two big and one small- spinning wheels-  plus 35 yards of yarn, 44 yards of cloth, and eight pounds of rolls (probably the rolags from which yarn would be spun), suggest household manufacture from the fleeces of those sheep. The family also had two Bibles and twenty other books. To us this would seem like a pretty short list of household goods for a family of eight compared to the extensive inventory of farm equipment, the harvest, and animals, but it was a different time.

Elijah Bryan was another farmer in town. He died in 1842 aged 79. His wife had died the previous year. They lived south of Hemstreet Park, probably near where they are buried in a little cemetery near the junction of River and Pinewoods Roads.  While his inventory presumably reflects that of a couple mostly retired from farming, it does reveal how they lived. And there is a pretty good list of Elijah’s wardrobe. He had nine cotton shirts, four woolen shirts,  three pairs of linen trousers, a pair of pantaloons,  three pairs of woolen drawers (boxers), vests, one coat, a cloak, 15 pairs of stockings, two pairs of boots and one pair of shoes, two hats, two walking canes, and one silk handkerchief. I am not sure of the difference between trousers and pantaloons. This seems like lots of stockings and not enough handkerchiefs. Of course we can’t know the accuracy of an inventory from 150 years ago, and it does lists two separate lots of “old clothes,” which might balance things out.

As to the contents of the house, the inventory includes only candles as the source of light. There are several bee hives and lots of honey on the list, so it’s no surprise that the candles were of beeswax.  There was one stove for heating and one for cooking. Most of the cooking and dining utensils were not described in detail, but there were 15 blue plates and six silver teaspoons. Likewise, most of the furniture was not described, except for one cherry table. There were six fancy chairs and six “flag bottom” chairs, plus 12 old chairs. Elijah and Eunice had one looking glass, a Bible, and “a lot of books”, valued at 12 cents. This is “lot” as in a group, not many. There was the equipment for taking care of the clothing- a clothes basket, clothes horse (drying rack), wash tub,  and irons, plus food storage- baskets and barrels, kegs,  stone pots (stoneware), firkins, casks,  and boxes. The house was carpeted to some extent, but it’s hard to tell how much as the list has “1 carpet the largest,” valued at $2.00 and “1 carpet the smallest,” valued at $3.25.

Flag-Bottom-Chair

flag-bottom chair

The bedding in the house reflected the house when Elijah and Eunice’s children were home: several bedsteads, three feather beds, four straw ticks (alternative mattress, not as comfortable as feathers), plus 30 linen sheets, 17 woolen sheets, and 1 cotton sheet. I think Eunice must have enjoyed textiles, as the inventory includes a number of “coverlids”: two carpets, two blue and white, two red and white, and one black and white, plus three quilts and three comforters.

The couple had just one horse and one heifer, and, interestingly, “one half of a 1 horse wagon.” Perhaps the wagon was shared with a son or daughter? There were just a few tools: a hoe and a bog hoe, a scythe, a cross cut saw, and an axe. As I said, they must have been mostly retired from farming, so perhaps there were more animals a few years earlier. Certainly Mrs Bryan must have had some chickens.

 

Next let’s look at the inventory of Eliphel Gifford, widow of Caleb.  She died in 1838 and is buried in St. John’s Lutheran Cemetery in Melrose.  Caleb died in 1817, so she had been on her own for a long time. She had two cows, a boar and 12 sows, ten chickens- identified as “dunghill fowl”, and a pair of geese- kind of a basic set of animals for daily use. There was hay and corn to feed them. She had some potatoes, vinegar, “a lot of pork in the barrel,” apples, and “a lot of lard,” plus equipment to store and process food: stone jars, baskets, 13 milk pans, pails, iron pots, tubs, hogsheads, a cheese press- needed for making cheese,  and three flour barrels.  She had “a lot of soap”- indicating she made her own, as probably most farm wives did. Eliphel also had both a parlour stove, “one premium stove No. 3”, and a cookstove, plus lots of wood already cut. These stoves place her in the modern world- heating and cooking with stoves, rather than fireplaces.  Her bakeware was made of tin, brass, and iron. She had five wooden bowls and two sugar boxes. There was no detailing of any special dishes or silverware, no mirror, no clock, no carpets, and just three books- a Bible and two others.

We hope her children had already taken the furniture they wanted by the time the inventory was taken, as the furniture consisted of just one rocking chair, one stand, one table, one cot, one bedstead, one set of homemade curtains,  and one lantern. There were no other lighting devices on the list.  There were four cotton sheets, four pillow cases, two calico quilts, one comforter, and two flannel sheets. There was a separate listing of a bed and bedding, valued at $15, the highest valued items on the list outside the livestock.

The appraisers made a list of the “wearing apparel of the dead:” five gowns, three short gowns, three petticoats, two check aprons, three pairs linen stockings, two pairs woolen stockings, nine handkerchiefs, a “bandbox hood ,” five caps, one pair of stays (a form of girdle/bra), one woolen shawl, one velvet cloak, five chemises, and one white cotton chemise. Again, one hopes her children had taken some of her clothes, as there are no shoes on this list, and some very old-fashioned garments- a set of stays, and chemises- which were like today’s slips with sleeves. The short gowns and petticoats would go together, the petticoats being outerwear and not underwear like today. Those are 18th century terms, however. It is possible that Eliphel, as an elderly lady, preferred to wear old fashioned clothes.  I do not know what a “bandbox hood” might be, though there were 18th century hoods with interior hoops that might be stored in a bandbox- what we might call a hat box.

 

The inventory of the estate of Alexander A. Miller, who died at age 27 in 1826, also lists his wearing apparel. This young man, who left a widow and small daughter, was a non-commissioned officer in the local infantry regiment in the New York State Militia. It seems from the inventory that he was a farmer, though it also lists a set of blacksmith tools.  Except for a wagon, the most valuable thing in his estate was a cloak worth $40. His uniform cloak with epaulette was worth $20. He also had a sword, sash, and military hat, plus a feather- probably for the hat. He owned four pairs of pantaloons, three broadcloth coats, and a blue surtout coat (also called a frock coat, probably knee length), an old black silk vest, an old hat, two pairs of old shoes, and another cloak, this one worth $12, also seven shirts and six cravats (like ties), a pair of gloves and a pair of mittens, five pairs of socks and one pair of suspenders. Tantalizingly, he also owned a bass viol worth $8. He also had a silver watch, and two pocket books (like a wallet).

Turning to the business side of the inventory, Alexander had five cows and one calf, seven old sheep and six lambs, eight shoats (young pigs) in the pen, 216 fowls, one mare and her colt. He had fifty loads of manure, ¾ ton of hay, 40 bushels of rye, a lot of potatoes in the ground, lots of wood and coal. The most interesting part of the inventory may be that Alexander had been in charge for the past two years of the “committee of the lunatic” which took care of George Miller, a lunatic. George evidently had an estate to pay for his care, but the estate hadn’t reimbursed Alexander for about $650 he had spent. This is a very large sum for the time. After a lot of research, I’ve concluded that George was Alexander’s father.  Alexander’s untimely death must have caused even more than the usual grief and chaos. He left a young widow and child, plus the problem of who would take care of his mentally ill father. I’m sure he also left friends and family sad at the death of such a promising young father, citizen, musician, and farmer.

So what can we conclude about life in Schaghticoke in 1840 from this admittedly limited sample? Farm families were as self-sufficient as possible. Inventories show equipment to process and store food, make candles, soap and other basics. Most farms had a variety of animals.  Some women processed their own wool and flax at home.  At the least they made their own clothes. Most families had stoves for cooking and heating, having advanced from fireplaces.  Wealthier families had a few special pieces of furniture and glassware or dishes- for example a cherry table or a few silver spoons. Some of this material may have been heirlooms passed down in the family. While people had small wardrobes by our standards, they owned a few more clothes than families fifty years earlier. Most people had a mirror or two, perhaps a clock, and at least a few books. As to farm tools, most were basic- ploughs, wagons, drags, shovels, etc., but a few new items appeared: a fanning mill, for example. Men had blacksmith and logging tools. Farmers grew the feed for their animals and grain to grind for flour. Some farmers specialized, for example growing sheep for the local woolen mills or lots of poultry, presumably for the local market as well.

 

Bibliography

 

Anderson, “History of Rensselaer County”

Baucus, John, probate file, Rensselaer County Historical Society

Bryan, Elijah, probate file, Rensselaer County Historical Society

Find-a-Grave.com

Gifford, Eliphel, probate file, Rensselaer County Historical Society

Miller, Alexander, probate file

Newcomb, John Bearse Genealogy of the Newcomb Family, Elgin, Ill, 1874.

Probate files Isaac Tallmadge 158; Henry P.Strunk 137

Robinson, Nathaniel, Revolutionary War pension application

Schaghticoke cemetery records

Smith, Munson, probate file. In the archives, Rensselaer County Historical Society

Transcript of the Records of the Schaghticoke Dutch Reformed Church, 1903.

Troy  “Daily Whig”, Oct 3, 1837, Oct 15, 1851, June 15, 1860, Feb 9, 1844, Sept. 1848

Troy “Daily Times”- article on Presbyterian Synod in 1865, mention of Noble in 1882, obit 1896,  Aug 20, 1856, Sept 30, 1851, May 5, 1854

Union College, “A General Catalogue of the Officers, Graduates, and students of Union College,

1795-1868, pub. Munsell, Albany, 1868.

Williams College; General Catalogue of the Non-Graduates, 1920.

Williams College; General Catalogue of the Officers and Graduates of Williams College, 1910.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schaghticoke Point: 19th Century Boomtown

I have been working on the contents of what follows for several months. It has been hard to make the decision to publish, as I feel I will find more information. But I could work on it forever! I know I have shared information before on the industrial revolution in Schaghticoke, beginning about 1800, but I don’t feel I have emphasized it enough- and, as you will see, I have a lot more to say. To prepare for this I visited two great museums: the National Park at Lowell, Massachusetts,(www.nps.gov/lowe/) and Hanford Mills Museum at East Meredith, NY (www.hanfordmills.org). I wanted to really understand the operation of mills, from water to finished products, and both places let the visitor see that in action. I recommend both places to you. Hanford Mills is near Oneonta, very accessible to us. Lowell is filled with textile mills and the canals and machinery needed to operate them. Hanford Mills has a grist and saw mill plus several other wood working machines which operate off the same water wheel, or with a steam boiler.

Hanford Mills, East Meredith, NY

Hanford Mills, East Meredith, NY

In the past I have written about the industrial revolution in the town of Schaghticoke. Now I think it’s hard for us to imagine the gorge of the Hoosic River at the village of Schaghticoke filled with mills of various kinds, the village populated with mill workers, who lived, worked, and shopped in their village. I would like to return to that topic, to try to describe what the mills were like, and imagine the work of the citizens of the village. The Rensselaer County Historical Society in Troy owns boxes and boxes of the papers of Richard Hart, whose home on Second Street the society occupies. Richard was a busy entrepreneur in the early 19th century, and one of his major projects was to purchase and operate the mills at Schaghticoke Point, now the village of Schaghticoke. His local partner was Amos Briggs, an immigrant to Schaghticoke from Rhode Island. In the future I plan to write much more about Amos, but for now I’ll stick to the mills. The Hart Papers cover a wide range of activities at the mills. I will draw on inventories made of several mills as Hart was planning to purchase them, leases of various mills, record books covering extensive repairs to a mill in 1824, and a census of area mills Hart made in 1831, as well as a great children’s book by David Macaulay called “Mill,” a book on water power by Louis C. Hunter, and material from the National Park at the textile mills in Lowell, Massachusetts. While there were other kinds of mills at Schaghticoke Point- including a grist and saw mill at least- this article will focus on the new textile mills.
For centuries, yarn and cloth were made by hand, no matter the natural fiber: flax- linen, cotton, or wool. The fiber needed to be harvested, whether from plant or animal, cleaned and processed, spun into yarn, woven into cloth, then the cloth needed to be “finished” to be durable. There was often also a step to dye the yarn after the spinning or weaving as well. The wool fulling process involved beating and cleaning the cloth in water to make it denser, “teasing” it, originally with the seed pods of the teasel plant to raise the pile, and trimming off loose threads. The fulling was the first part of the process to be mechanized, and was done by water-powered mills as early as the middle ages. A fulling mill was one of the first at Schaghticoke, probably shortly after the first bridge was put across the river c. 1792.
The next steps of the cloth making process to be mechanized were the spinning and carding. Again, the power was provided by water. Carding, the combing of fibers to straighten them out, could be done more easily in bulk than spinning., and was mechanized by the mid-1700’s in England. Samuel Slater built the first spinning mill in the United States in Pawtucket, Rhode Island in 1793. This technology spread like wildfire through the Northeast, with inventors vying to get patents on new improvements. The goal was to be able to spin more fiber at once- have more and more spindles on one machine- to make the process faster. There were two types of spinning machines in use: The spinning mule used a two part process to spin fiber into thread or yarn: first the roving (the unspun fiber in loose ropes from the carding machine) was spun, then wound up on a pool. The throstle did the same process in one action- drawing out the roving, twisting it and winding it on a spool. A throstle is a song bird. The bird-like singing or humming of the machine at work gave it its name. The mills at Schaghticoke had both kinds of spinning devices, as well as carding machines.
throstle
The chance for profit in the new mechanization of the textile business led budding entrepreneurs to fan out from the East Coast, seeking out good sites for water power as the 19th century began. The over -100 foot drop in the Hoosic River at Schaghticoke was a magnet for these men. One of the earliest to build a textile mill here was Benjamin Joy, from Boston. Benjamin, born in 1757, was a merchant with many business interests and the first U.S. consul to Calcutta, nominated by President George Washington in 1794. While he probably visited Schaghticoke, his brother Charles was Benjamin’s agent, who ran the mills. Charles was in Schaghticoke by 1795, when he married Elizabeth Chase, who may have been the daughter of Daniel Chase, builder of the first bridge across the Hoosic in 1792. The couple lived here until about 1820. Charles was one of the founders of the Presbyterian Church in 1803, and served as a trustee until 1820. Interestingly, in the 1820 census, Charles was not listed as employed in manufacturing, but rather as a farmer. One Joy Mill processed flax, another cotton, and the Rensselaer Cotton and Woolen Mill, with local owners, later the Farmers’ Manufacturing Company, dealt with both cotton and wool, as the name implies, from about the same time. I found an ad in the ‘Troy Post” for 1819 for “patent seine twine of a perfect lay…with all other kinds of twine..” at Samuel Conant & Company in Troy. The twine was made at the linen factory of Charles Joy at Schaghticoke Point, and “known to be of superior quality.”

The falls of the Hoosic attracted entrepreneurs like the Joys. The mills they built attracted workers and engineers, first to build the mills, then to design and use the machinery inside them. I have written before of Oliver Barrett, born in Hudson Falls in 1783, who filed a patent from Schaghticoke in 1811 for a machine for making cotton roving. Carding machines produced loose tubes of fiber called roving, which would then be spun, so Oliver was working on the carding process. To succeed, factories needed to use the latest equipment, making the textile process as efficient as possible. So from the earliest years of the Industrial Revolution, Schaghticoke was on the cutting edge.

The last part of the textile process to be mechanized was the weaving. For some years, the other parts would be done in the mill, with the yarn sent out to be woven in area homes, and the fabric returned to the mill for mechanical finishing such as fulling. Or if the whole process was done in the mill, the weaving would be on hand operated mills. A genealogy of the local Banker family reports on a man named James Verity, born on Long Island in 1786. He learned to weave in the traditional way, through apprenticeship with a Quaker weaver in Nine Partners, near Poughkeepsie, from age fourteen to 21. At that point, 1807, he came to Schaghticoke Point, where he wove in the cotton mill. After his 1812 marriage to Eunice Banker, he continued to weave, but at his home, on a farm south of Melrose.

spinning frame at Lowell

spinning frame at Lowell

The first power loom in the U.S. was built at Lowell, Massachusetts in 1813. Looms would be added to the mills as soon as possible, as this would vastly speed up the manufacture of cloth. An 1831 census of area mills reported that the Joy Linen Mill had “28 duck looms propelled by hand.” So in that case, though the weaving was still not mechanized, the weavers were centralized in the mill. This would certainly give the mill owner greater control of the finished fabric and of the worker. I think that various combinations of hand and power looms were used through the 1830’s.

mechanized loom at Lowell

mechanized loom at Lowell

Building a mill involved buying both land and water rights. In general, riparian (having to do with rivers) law gives landowners ownership of an adjacent stream or river if it is not navigable. If it is navigable, the river is public property. The Hoosic certainly was not navigable at Schaghticoke!
The 100 foot water fall at Schaghticoke had lots of potential, but no mill and water wheel combination could accommodate more than about a 20 foot fall, so it needed to be harnessed. We see how it is controlled by the dam to this day, though now the water is used to power a hydroelectric facility. At a time when construction was done by hand and horse, without concrete and steel, dams needed to be constructed, along with a raceway or flume, which delivered water to the water wheel and took it away, and probably a mill pond, for storage of water: all aiming to maintain a constant flow to the mill. The flume could be carved in a stone stream bed, like that of the Hoosic at Schaghticoke, built of stones, or even elevated and built of wood. The type of water wheel would have to be chosen, designed and built. There were a number of types: flutter, undershot, overshot, breast, and tub. All would have to have a container to operate in, either a pit excavated in the riverbank or a tub made of wood.

this mill was at Lowell, but the mills at Schaghticoke were probably similar

this mill was at Lowell, but the mills at Schaghticoke were probably similar

With a number of mills being built on the Hoosic at Schaghticoke, there was intense and careful negotiation over the design and placement of the dams, wheels, and flumes. The amount of water power was limited, and all would want and need their share. Riparian law mandated that the owner of the mill would have to return the same amount of water to the river as he took out to power his mill. Deeds included very specific provisions about rights-of-way, repair of dams, and amount of water ensured to each owner or tenant. Without water, the mill couldn’t operate.
I am sure you are thinking, “Wait, what about spring floods, summer droughts, and winter freezing?” Waterpower was variable and unreliable. Some of this could be controlled by the construction of mill ponds, where water could be contained, stockpiled, so to speak, and released in a controlled manner. But there would be times when the water was totally frozen, and times when it was just too high to be controlled. Dams and flumes were easily damaged and needed frequent repair. A careless owner could create problems for not only himself, but his neighbors, including nearby farmers whose land could be flooded.
Textile mill buildings would have to be built to accommodate all of the machinery. This resulted in long and narrow buildings of multiple stories. Various belts and gears would transfer the water power from the water wheel to the various machines. The power train was long and narrow. The mills needed to have many windows, allowing use of as much natural light as possible to illuminate the work spaces. Mills could be and were heated by wood stoves and lit by oil lamps, but cloth fibers are very flammable, and the owners did all they could to minimize the risk of fire.
By 1825 or so, the cloth making process ended up with these steps, with some variation depending on the kind of fiber:
1. The fiber needed to be cleaned. For wool, this would mean washing, for flax “retting” or soaking in water, and removal of the outer husk of the plant. Both wool and flax were produced locally. Cotton, of course, had to be imported from the South. It arrived in huge bales, weighing up to 500 pounds. The bales needed to be picked apart. This could be done manually, or by a picker machine. Often this process was done in a separate building as the cotton would be at its most flammable as wispy fibers.
2. The fibers were straightened through carding, by a machine, which would produce a light, fluffy, thin mat. This would go through a drawing frame to be given a slight twist, then to a speeder, which would turn it into roving. Roving is an unspun, fragile narrow rope.
3. The roving was spun on either a mule or throstle of a number of spinners, ending up on a spool. Some of the yarn was spun to be the warp, some the weft on a loom. The yarn might now have to be dressed with a starch before weaving.
4. Now the yarn would be woven into all kinds of cloth. In Schaghticoke, the flax was also twisted into ropes, from shoe laces on up. Yarn could also be dyed.
5. Finally, the cloth would be “finished.” This depended on the content. Wool would be fulled, and stretched on tenters (long wooden frames and the source of keeping someone on “tenterhooks”); cotton could be “sized,” or glazed. Fabric could also be dyed.

The mills employed men, women, and children. According to the website of the National Park at Lowell, Massachusetts, one man could run a picker, and one could run ten carding machines. One woman could run a dressing frame, one every two speeders, one a drawing frame, one per spinner, and one weaver for two looms. Children were often employed as doffers, who would remove the full spindles, ducking under and around the machines as they operated. There would be one manager for about thirty employees, and one machinist per fifty machines, to keep them in working order. The mills would be noisy, the air filled with fiber. Before the advent of ear plugs, longtime workers would certainly suffer from deafness. Some of the processing involved noxious chemicals like bleach and oil of vitriol (sulfuric acid). In winter, the rooms would be cold, despite the use of stoves, and certainly smoky and smelly from the burning wood, and the oil lamps in use in the short winter days. Clothing and body parts could easily get caught in any of the machines.
During the 19th century, many mill workers lived in housing provided by their employers and shopped at least in part at stores they ran. This could be a mutually beneficial arrangement, as workers knew they would have a decent place to live and employers knew their workers could get to work easily and had some control over them when they were not at work. The owners didn’t want workers to come to work drunk, for example. New villages grew up around the mills, as men and women left farms to work at what they hoped would be better jobs. For women this was a first opportunity at employment outside the home. Children as young as six or seven worked at least part-time in the mill, but if the mills were running, the work day could be 12-16 hours for all, six days a week. Some owners did not employ young children, and others made sure they went to school as well as work. As the mills were often not operating in the winter, there would be time for school then.
Let’s turn to the real mills at Schaghticoke… Richard Hart of Troy did a census of mostly cotton mills in the Rensselaer/Washington County area in 1831. I think he was assessing possible competitors as he and Amos Briggs bought up all the mills in the gorge of the Hoosic River at Schaghticoke. Whatever the purpose, it gives us a rare and early snapshot of the industry at the time. The mill operators filled out the census forms themselves. There were two linen mills in the survey, both of them at Schaghticoke. The Joy Mill, built in 1809, produced 2500 bolts of sail duck, 15,000 pounds of shoe thread, and 40,000 yards of bagging each year. Sail duck would be used for the sails on ships, bagging would be made into linen bags, which were used for storing many, many commodities in pre-plastic days. To make this product, the mill used 50 cords of wood, 200 gallons of oil, 3000 pounds of potash for bleaching, 500 pounds of oil of vitriol (sulfuric acid), and 1500 pounds of “foreign bleaching salts.” Imagine the toxic pollution of the river from the latter items. The mill had 175 people living on the premises. This number would include workers and their families, as workers were housed on the property of the mill.

The second flax mill, Tibbits Briggs & Company, used 10,000 pounds of flax and 65,000 pounds of flax and hemp tow (tow is coarser outer part of flax, used to make cording and rope) per year, and made 65,000 yards of bagging, 25,000 pounds of shoe thread, and 10,000 yards of carpet warp per year. The warp would be set on a loom to weave carpets. It had fifty employees. Tibbits was the brother of Hart’s partner, Amos Briggs.
There were four cotton mills in Schaghticoke. The Joy Cotton Mill, built in 1812, had 750 spindles and throstles and 18 looms, and made 149,700 yards of cotton shirting each year. It used 40,500 pounds of cotton, 500 pounds of starch, 25 cords of wood, and 100 gallons of oil each year. Of course the cotton was all imported from the South. The mill employed six men, who made $4.50 per week, and 22 women, who made $1.60. Two or three of the employees were under 12. Sixty people lived on the premises, however.
The Ephraim Congdon Mill, built in 1820, had 432 throstles and 20 shirting looms, which used 40,000 pounds of cotton per year and made 125,000 yards of #18 yarn per year. It must have made shirting too, but that was not reported. The factory used 3000 pounds of flour for sizing the fabric each year. It employed eight men and twenty women, though 40 persons lived on the premises. An article in the “Troy Budget” in February 1834 reported the mill would be auctioned- presumably because it was bankrupt- the next month. The Star Manufacturing Company, managed by Amos Briggs, was built in 1818. It had 720 spindles and 16 looms. It used 32,000 pounds of cotton per year and made 10,000 yards of cloth, with a work force of ten males and 32 females. Sixty-five people lived on the premises. When modern residents speak of “the Star Hole” in the Hoosic River, they are referring to this mill, though I’m sure not one person knows any of its history.
The Farmers Manufacturing Company was leased by Richard Hart and Amos Briggs in 1821, and purchased by them the following year. They bought the water rights and the factory for $6,000. The brick factory had lots of cotton machinery: one picker, to the east of the partition on the first floor, six carding machines, one threader, one drawing frame, 32 power looms to the west of the partition, and two dressing machines. They also had use of 32 spinning frames, 4 mule frames, 4 stretcher frames, 8 drawing frames, 8 roping frames, and 12 winding heads, some of which was outdated machinery. They were located on the 3rd and 4th floors. There was machinery to operate a woolen mill as well, but they didn’t plan to use that. The property also included a brick store and four large and two small houses, plus room for gardens for the workers. Under the lease agreement, Amos would manage the day-to-day operations of the mill, and regulate the water, making sure to keep the grist mill well-supplied; Richard would purchase the cotton. He worked with a cotton broker in New York City, rather than buying the cotton directly from plantations in the South.

Richard P. Hart

Richard P. Hart

poster of cotton mill, from Lowell. The cotton was picked over on the first floor, ginned, and carded. It was spun on the second and third floors, and woven on the fourth floor. Note the waterwheel at the bottom center.

poster of cotton mill, from Lowell. The cotton was picked over on the first floor, ginned, and carded. It was spun on the second and third floors, and woven on the fourth floor. Note the waterwheel at the bottom center.

This established the relationship that would exist between Briggs and Hart for the next 20 years. In 1825 Amos Briggs, the hands-on manager of the mill, modernized and rebuilt the cotton mill of the Farmers Company. Richard Hart, the money man, bought a new speeder and drawing frame, and there was lots of repair of the dam and flume, with new gates installed, plus removal of the old and construction of a new tub wheel. Some of this involved digging in the rock of the river bed. The factory itself was replastered, a new brick chimney built, a bell added, the garret (attic) windows rebuilt and painted. Over a couple of months, seventy different men were employed for from a couple of days to several weeks in the renovations. Part of their wages was a tot of rum or whiskey each day. The bell would mark the beginning and end of the work day.
By the time of the 1831 census, the Farmers Factory was much bigger than its rivals. It had 2,976 spindles, mules and throstles, with 981 looms. It made 750,000 yards of cloth per year from 172,818 pounds of cotton. It used 5000 pounds of starch, 35 barrels of flour, 85 cords of wood, 1000 bushels of coal and 650 gallons of oil per year. The factory employed twenty men at $7 per week, 35 boys at $1.50 per week, fifty women at $2.50 per week, 55 girls at $1.37 per week, and twenty children at 87.5 cents per week. The children got to go to school for three months per year. I don’t know the definition of “boy” and “girl” versus “children”. As late as 1870 children as young as six worked in the mills. Five hundred people lived in mill housing on the premises.
The 1831 census included another cotton mill. Giles Slocum & Company had just been built in 1831. It had 1000 spindles, mules, and throstles and forty looms. It made 250,000 yards of cotton per year and employed fourteen males and forty females, none under twelve years of age. I assumed it was in the gorge of the Hoosic as well, but finally discovered it was on the Schaghticoke side of the Hoosic at Valley Falls. The 1856 and 1858 Rensselaer County maps show it on the north side of the river, just upstream from the bridge.

Giles Slocum was born in Massachusetts in 1789. He was in Schaghticoke by 1820 when he purchased a pew at the new Presbyterian Church. He married Helen Brown, the daughter of George and Elizabeth Brown, whom I believe were English immigrants. According to Sylvester’s History of Rensselaer County, p 454, George had a machine shop “below the wagon-bridge on the southwest side” of the Hoosic River, “perhaps as early as 1800.” Sylvester says Giles was in business with him. He branched out on his own by 1830. Besides building the mill, he erected a large brick house for himself and his family, surrounded on three sides by housing for his workers and their families. I thank Jessie Ravage, researcher, for pointing this out to me.

slocum 1861 map  From the 1854 Rensselaer County map- C.P. Slocum, labelled here, must have been Giles’ son, who had died in 1848.
This all adds up to about 400 men, women and children working in the mills, with over 800 people living in worker housing of these mills in the area of the village of Schaghticoke Point in 1830, where there had been no village twenty years earlier. (The population of the village was 600 in 2010, by the way.) This certainly changes the way I think of the village as I drive through it today, when there’s barely a place to work, and certainly no factory at all. Was this mill census accurate?
Let’s look at the 1820, 1830 and 1840 federal censuses. Unfortunately the 1830 census lists only the names of heads of households, plus numbers of males and females of various ages in each family, plus separate columns for free blacks of various ages and one column for aliens, with no detail about occupations at all. There were 3024 people in the whole town of Schaghticoke, living in 454 families. The village is not separated out, but there are just a few of the 34 pages of the census which include almost all of the 151 aliens in town, about 2% of the population. I think we may assume that the aliens mostly lived in the village, where they worked in the mills. There were 18 families composed totally of non-native people, where there had been only one in 1820. This means that most of the mill workers were natives of the U.S. We don’t know how many had come to Schaghticoke from other states, drawn by the mills, though a number certainly had. The ones I have examined came from New England. But there had been an influx of aliens too, mostly from Great Britain and Ireland.
But is it reasonable to think that of a townwide population of about 3000, about 400 people worked in the mills and 800 lived in mill housing? That’s 13% of the population as workers and 27% in the housing. In the 1820 census 600 of the 2500 residents had been farmers, or about ¼, 153 had been in manufacturing, or 16%. In both cases, this includes just the actual farmers or manufacturers, not their families. We know that the mills were built between 1820 and 1830, so it’s reasonable to think that the number of mill workers would have grown a lot. The overall population increase of the whole town from 1820 to 1830 was 8%, from 2522 to 3024 people. The 1840 census does indicate that over 425 people in town worked in manufacturing and trades. It does include women and children. So while the mill census may be somewhat exaggerated, it is not impossible.
Even if the mill census does inflate the numbers somewhat, the fact was that there was a new village at Schaghticoke, which had grown up in about twenty years. The residents would need the necessities of life available close by, with transportation so limited. Unlike the farmers, they weren’t growing most of their own food. Along with the rapid growth of mills, there must have been a real boom in the construction industry, plus need for stores of all kinds, medical care, schools, transportation, and churches. There must have been a tremendous air of excitement in the town.

Turning to another part of the 1831 census, where did the raw material for the mills come from? It’s hard for me to imagine the logistics of importing 300,000 pounds of cotton to Schaghticoke in a year, in the era before railroads. Cotton was packed into bales that weighed 500 pounds and measured about 56 x 48 x 30”. Presumably they came up the Hudson River by boat, probably to Troy, then by horse and wagon to town.

cotton bale

cotton bale

Flour was also needed for sizing the cotton. I know that there was a grist mill along with the cotton mills on the Hoosic, plus another grist mill on the Tomhannock Creek at Schaghticoke Hill. Did local farmers produce enough wheat to be ground into the flour needed for these mills to finish the cotton, plus the flour needed for domestic consumption? I don’t know.
The two linen mills required raw flax. I know that some flax was grown locally, especially in Pittstown. Was it enough for the linen mills? I know that some flax was imported from Ireland in the 1840’s, along with what was grown locally, but I don’t know about 1830. And of course the woolen mill needed raw wool. Farmers did raise sheep locally, as they do now, but I don’t know if they were able to provide all the wool needed for local mills.
By about 1840 Amos Briggs of Schaghticoke and Richard Hart of Troy owned all of the mills in the gorge of the Hoosic River, an early monopoly. It was quite a conglomerate- with cotton, linen, and woolen mills, plus a grist mill, a farm ( located on Verbeck Avenue, where West Wind Farm is today), a mill store, and mill housing, plus a number of other lots in the village, which were rented for stores and housing. In the future I will look at these two men in more detail. It’s clear there is much more to learn about these mills and the village.
Bibliography:
Hart Papers and probate files at the Rensselaer County Historical Society in Troy
Sylvester’s “History of Rensselaer County”, 1880
U.S. and NYS Census for Schaghticoke: 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1855, 1860
Spafford’s “Gazetteer of NYS”, 1813 and 1824
MacCauley, David, “Mill”, 1983.
Trips to National Park at Lowell, Mass., and Hanford Mills Museum, East Meredith, NY
http://www.fultonhistory.com- newspaper articles

The Industrial Revolution in Schaghticoke

 

             The  Industrial Revolution in the new United States was  based on use of water power and improvement of transportation. There had been a few mills in Schaghticoke prior to 1800, saw and grist mills on the Deep Kill and Tomhannock Creeks. They produced products for local consumption.  The construction of the first bridge across the river at what is now the village of Schaghticoke around 1790 made possible the exploitation of the tremendous water power of the 100-foot falls there. I have already written of the construction of the Northern Turnpike in about 1800, another part of the transportation component of industrialization. But access to those falls was critical to future development.

             According to Beth Kloppott in her “History of Schaghticoke”, William Chase built the bridge over the Hoosic in 1788, and turned it over to New  York State in 1792 in exchange for 12,000 acres of land north of the Mohawk River. The map of the Corporation Lands at Schaghticoke- the portion of town owned  by the City of Albany in the vicinity of  the Knickerbocker Mansion, has “Chase’s Bridge” labeled. William Chase appears in the 1790 census of the town with a family of six males aged 16 and over, seven females, and one slave.  In 1794  town records show that Chase was reimbursed 59 pounds for repairs to the bridge. 

 

            A  new bridge was already needed by 1799. By that time, William Chase had moved on. He does not appear in the 1800 census. New York State authorized a company made up of John Knickerbacker, Bethel Mather, Charles Joy, Silas Weeks, John Travis, and Zephaniah Russell to build the bridge and collect tolls for 25 years, after which the state would take over. These local men were probably interested in the tolls, but perhaps more in the industrial development made possible by the bridge. While Knickerbocker and Mather were primarily farmers, Charles Joy was an immigrant from Boston who would soon build a textile mill on the Hoosic.

this section of the c 1790 map of the Albany Corporation shows the Chases Bridge label straddling the Hoosic River at what would become the Village of Schaghticoke

                After 1800, the factory system grew throughout the U.S., with larger and larger numbers of employees working in a central building, using machines operated by water power, rather than individual craftsmen working at home or in small shops.  New England entrepreneurs moved into Schaghticoke, eager to develop factories using the water power of the Hoosic. Gradually, manufacture of woolen and linen cloth moved from the home to a central factory building. The village of Schaghticoke began to grow, as people moved into town to work in the mills. They needed places to live and shop.  By 1813, Spafford’s  “Gazetteer” said the town of Schaghticoke had twelve grain mills, eleven saw mills, one oil mill, one fulling mill, two carding machines, one cotton, and one linen mill. While some of the grain and saw mills were on other streams in town, the rest of the mills were on the Hoosic at the new village of Schaghticoke Point.

                According to Sylvester’s History of Rensselaer County, Charles and Benjamin Joy of Boston constructed the first mills at   ‘Schaghticoke Point”: a carding machine (which would card wool, preparing it for spinning), a grist mill, and a saw mill. Charles was one of the group who financed the construction of the second bridge over the river in 1799.  The saw mill still survived in 1850, when Lewis Pickett built a paper mill on the spot. The paper mill was across the street from where Agway is now. Joy’s Schaghticoke Linen Mills, founded about 1800, were just downstream. They manufactured duck, a heavy canvas fabric. The site later became the Cable Flax Mills, which I will discuss in future posts. Another candidate for the first mill at Schaghticoke is a fulling mill, which would have finished the woolen fabric woven on home-based looms. A 1798 advertisement in the “Troy Northern Budget” states that Edward Hart “has taken the fulling mill at Schaghticoke Point,” which would indicate her had purchased an already-existing business.

              Sylvester also states that there was a machine shop “perhaps as early as 1800” on the south side of the river, west of Route 40, owned by George Brown and his son-in-law Giles Slocum. This later became a cotton factory owned by Ephraim Congdon, then a twine factory. The cotton factory burned and a new twine factory was built on the site. Brown and Congdon negotiated over the sale of the land, water rights, and the right to build a dam- necessary to create the vital water power. Brown sold land and water rights to the Starr Manufacturing Company, incorporated in 1814, which manufactured woolen, cotton, and linen goods. A relic of that company is the “Star Hole”, a depression in the Hoosic River under the bridge at Schaghticoke, jumped into to cool off in summer by generations of local teenagers. Further downstream on the south side was a cotton factory, built by Waddell and Shephard about 1816, which operated about twenty years before it burned.  Sylvester goes on to say that at one time there was a plan to develop the water power slightly downstream from that, at Buck’s Neck, creating a chain of factories, but that the dam necessary for the project was washed away in an unexpected flood of the river, and never rebuilt. None of the companies discussed in this paragraph was successful in the long term, but the owners continued to reinvest and build anew. 

this photo is taken from down stream- and really shows the falls on the Hoosic River at Schaghticoke. Ray Seymour found it for me.

              The Rensselaer Woolen and Cotton Manufacturing Company was downstream from an early flax mill, on the north side of the river. It was incorporated at Schaghticoke Point in 1810 for the purpose of manufacturing “woolen, cotton, and linen goods, and for making glass, and from ore, bar iron, anchors, mill-irons, steel, nail rods, hoop iron, (and other iron goods)”. From the list, it seems the goal was to use the products of the farmers and provide them with metal goods they might need. It owned land on the river which it rented to smaller companies.

             The first directors of the Company were James Brookins, James Cornell, Munson Smith, Leonard Cozzens, and Charles Starbuck.  Brookins, whom I will write  more about in other posts, was an officer in the Green Mountain Boys during the Revolutionary War, who moved here in 1793. He was also an original commissioner in the Northern Turnpike Company of 1801. Smith appears in the 1800 census, but not Cornell, Cozzens, or Starbuck, who were newcomers to town. The company advertised in “The Troy Post”, seeking raw wool to be exchanged for finished wool cloth, and for “six or seven good families, who would engage several out of each family to be employed in the Manufactory.” These families would receive housing, courtesy of the mill.  Presumably, the mill would buy its wool locally, but would have to import the cotton.

           The company struggled.  In 1812 and 1816 New York State lent the company money. In 1814, it advertised the sale of some of its cotton spinning machinery: “new cotton machinery for sale. 4 new throssel frames, containing 60 spindles each, and 2 mules of 180 spindles, apply to Messrs. Richard P. Hart and Co. Troy or at Schaghticoke Point where the machinery can be seen. Erastus Skinner, agent for the Rensselaer. Woolen and Cotton Mfr Co.”  There must have been other machinery, because on August 22, 1815, the company advertised “wanted  3 or 4 journeymen clothiers at the Rensselaer. Woolen and Cotton Mfg Co, Schaghticoke Point, Erastus Skinner agent.”  On August 25, 1815, it advertised “Manufacturers and Clothiers take notice: in May last there was a piece of broadcloth partly dressed left with us to be finished which we have reason to believe was stolen.  Any person proving property and paying charges can have it by calling on Erastus Skinner, Agent.” One wonders what story the person told who brought this length of fabric to be finished, and why the factory came to believe it was processing stolen goods! It’s also interesting to know that the factory processed fabric woven elsewhere- presumably of home manufacture.

perhaps the cotton machinery at the mills in Schaghticoke looked something like this

                In 1816, the agent tried to settle some of the unfinished business of the company. On October 8, he advertised:  “Notice: all persons indebted to Renselaer Woolen and Cotton Mfg requested to call and settle their accounts by 1st of November.  All remaining unsettled at that time will be put in proper hands for collection.  Also all persons having yarn in their hands to weave or cloth wove are requested to return the yarn or cloth without delay as the business must all be closed.” The second part of this ad gives another indication that at least some of the cloth was  being woven in private homes, then brought to the mill for finishing. I think that the reference to the business being “closed”, just means that the accounts needed to be settled. As is true now, much business was done on credit.

                I must quote another fascinating ad from agent Erastus Skinner in the “Troy Post” of January 7, 1817.”$ 30 Dollars Reward/ Stolen from the tenter bars in the Dry House of the Rensselaer Woolen and Cotton Mfg Co on Saturday night December 28: 3 pieces of cloth: 1 piece black broad cloth about 25 yards fulled, napped, and not sheared; 1 piece mixed Kerseymere about 24 yards, cotton warp, fulled and partly dressed; 1 piece country cloth black about 6 yards, fulled and partly dressed. Whoever will return the whole shall receive $20 reward or in proportion to what is returned and $10 for lodging the thief in the gaol of the county and all reasonable charges paid.”  Broadcloth can be either woolen or cotton. Kerseymere, a term first used in 1793, was a fine woolen cloth with a twill weave, though in this case, the warp was cotton. We also learn that the factory had a special building where the cloth would be spread out to dry on tenter bars. One wonders who would steal cloth that was not finished, and if the thief was caught.

this illustration shows fabric on tenter hooks

         In 1819 the company was ordered sold to cover its debt. The factory burned in 1821, but it was rebuilt by two men who would figure prominently in the continuing industrial development of Schaghticoke, Amos Briggs of Schaghticoke and Richard Hart of Troy. 

                   While the Hoosic River was the primary location of mills in Schaghticoke,  the water power of the Tomhannock Creek, which crosses Route 40 at the settlement of Schaghticoke Hill, was also used by industry. On the northwest side of the stream where the bridge crosses on Route 40, there was a grist mill, operated by the Evans family. Sylvester’s history states there was a saw mill and turning factory of George Burton nearby as well.  Just downstream was the complex known as “Knickerbocker’s Mills”, site of textile works. Sylvester states there was a mill there as early as 1800. I have found that Herman Knickerbocker ran a “Satinet” factory there around 1830. Yet further downstream is the original location of the Schaghticoke Powder Mills, founded about 1812 by the Masters brothers. I will write further about both Herman Knickerbocker and the Masters and the Powder Mill in future posts as the stories are long ones.

             Continuing on downstream on the Tomhannock Creek, there are three waterfalls- Sylvester says two, but I have visited all three. Buttermilk Falls, just upstream from the bridge on Buttermilk Falls Road, is the most visible of the falls. According to Sylvester, there used to be a grist mill and a very early bellows factory somewhere in the vicinity of that falls or the one just below it, which is visible to the west of the road, especially in the winter. Sylvester states that construction of the railroad created new water power in the area, and that Elisha Brownell built a dam and a paper mill to take advantage of it in 1852, but that the mill burned after just a few years of operation.  Farther downstream, near the current Denison Farm, is supposed to be the site of the first grist mill built north of Albany,around 1707, on a small stream which runs into the Tomhannock. William Pitt Button, who owned the farm when Sylvester’s history was written in 1880, built a small dam at the same site to churn butter for the family. Still farther downstream, Anthony Button built a flax mill around 1875.

           Mills were also built on the Deep Kill, the stream which crosses Route 40 in Grant’s Hollow. From 1819-1912, the Deep Kill was the southern boundary of the town of Schaghticoke. Michael Cook, founder of Cooksboro and a Revolutionary War veteran, had a grist mill on the Deep Kill, which formed the southeasternmost boundary of the town. The next mills on the stream were at what is now called Grant’s Hollow, mills to produce agricultural machinery, first constructed about 1836 by Issac T. Grant. I will write about Mr. Grant in future posts, as his is a fascinating  and lengthystory. Further downstream on the Deep Kill toward the Hudson, there were just a few saw mills.

         Mill construction continued in Schaghticoke throughout the 19th century, sometimes in what to us would seem surprising locations, considering the meager flow of the streams. I will discuss these mills in future columns. The early 19th century industrialization transformed the town from a purely agricultural area to a booming site of industry. The village of Schaghticoke grew quickly, and agriculture began to be focused on producing products for the textile, grist, and saw mills. Retail businesses sprang up to serve the new residents, who were both locals and new immigrants, first from New England, then from Ireland, and Scotland, come to find jobs. Schools developed to serve the children of the incomers, as did a variety of churches. Schaghticoke left its colonial past behind.

 

Bibliography:

Kloppott, Beth. History of the Town of Schaghticoke, 1988

Sylvester, Nathaniel, History of Rensselaer County , New York, 1880

Lansing Papers, NYS Archives

“Troy Northern Budget” in the Rensselaer County Historical Society

 

 

 

Native Americans in Schaghticoke, early settlement

a Mahican warrior

 

                                The connection of Schaghticoke with Native Americans is obvious just from the name. Schaghticoke is a Mahican Indian word, thought to mean “mingling of the waters.” The “waters” would be the Tomhannock Creek with the Hoosic River, and the Hoosic River with the Hudson River.  The occupation of our area by Native Americans began much before the use of the word, probably at the time of the last great glaciation, some 10,000 years ago.  The rivers and valleys here have always been great places for people to live.

                The major sites of Indian occupation in the town of Schaghticoke were from the area around the Knickerbocker Mansion on both sides of the Hoosic River to the Hudson River.  Around 1990, some boys playing on the banks of the Hoosic River near the Mansion found some human bones washing out. The police were called, but so were the archeologists, and the bones proved to be from an Indian burial, dating 2000-3000 years ago. The bones were reinterred by the State Archeologists nearby, with the exact location kept secret. 

                Anyone who lives and farms around the Mansion, in what is known as “Old Schaghticoke”, or across the Hoosic from there, is used to finding arrowheads and rocks shaped by humans. Some years ago, the area of the Liberty Ridge Corn Maze on Stillwater Bridge Road was proposed as a site for a trailer park, so an extensive archeological survey was done. The conclusion was that the site of the old house on the property was probably where an Indian village was located, and the flats where the trailers were to be put were the fields of the village. In my office, I have several boxes of the archeological finds from that dig.

the entrance sign for Liberty Ridge Farm on Stillwater Bridge Road in Schaghticoke. The farm was the site of a 17th century Mahican village, overlooking the Hoosic River.

                The Indians who lived in the town of Schaghticoke during the period just before the Europeans arrived  were Mahicans, who lived very much like the better-known Iroquois. They built  houses of wood and bark, hunted in the woods, fished in the rivers, and farmed corn, beans, and squash.  Various tribes of the Mahicans lived throughout New England. By 1700, the Hudson River was the western border of their territory, from Schaghticoke  almost all the way to New York City.

The first contact the local Indians had with Europeans may have been with Henry Hudson and his crew. According to Shirley Dunn in her fascinating book, “The Mohicans and their Land, 1609-1730,” after Hudson’s ship “the Half Moon” was moored a couple of miles below the current location of Albany in 1609, its crew rowed at least thirty miles up the river, exploring, “surely well above Schaghticoke.”

                When European settlement was first made in the area of Albany, in 1614, a covenant or agreement was made with the Indians in the region, to ensure peace and cooperation. The Indians at Schaghticoke were very much a part of that agreement.  There were probably 5,000 or fewer  “River Indians”  living  from Saratoga to Kingston and  from just west of the Hudson River to the Berkshires and Green Mountains. The Dutch at Albany and the Indians living around them had a mutually beneficial trading relationship, of trade goods in exhange for furs, for many years.

Bibliography: Dunn, Shirley, The Mohicans and their Land, 1609-1730,1994.

                          Ruttenber, E.M., Indian Tribes of Hudson’s River to 1700,1872, reprinted 1992.